National Standards for Business Education
Information Systems Standards

The Business Education Core Standards are divided into seven categories;

  1. Business Communications
  2. Business Environment
  3. Career Preparation, Job Acquisition and Retention
  4. Economics and Financial Concepts
  5. Employability Skills
  6. Information Technologies
  7. Leadership Development

    Business & Marketing

    Program information that prepares students for careers and/or postsecondary education in the areas of marketing, finance, accounting, information technology, entrepreneurship, and economics.

    Purpose

    The primary purpose of business education is to provide instruction for and about business. Students learn the basics of personal finance, develop techniques for making wise consumer decisions, master economic principles, and learn how businesses operate. In addition, business educators play a prominent role in developing the knowledge, skills, and attitudes necessary for students to succeed in the workforce. Further, business education courses provide the impetus for students to successfully complete college programs in one of several business areas.

    The multifaceted discipline of business education includes subject matter areas that focus on the core areas of business (management, marketing, finance, accounting, entrepreneurship), on factors that affect business (economics, international business, business law), on basic skills (computation and communication), and on examining business from different perspectives.

    One of the most important components of business education is information technology. In this critical area students learn to use computers as tools in conjunction with related software. In addition, they learn to make decisions, to produce professional documents, to communicate via the Internet, and to research topics utilizing libraries around the world.

     

    Programs/Services

    California Department of Education staff provide leadership for the following programs and services that support business and marketing education.

    • Development of instructional resources, such as Model Curriculum Standards, Integrated Performance Activities, and Economics of Business Ownership.
    • Comprehensive staff development activities that include statewide conferences, regional workshops, and summer institutes.
    • Development of assessments in business education that incorporate the Business Technology Core.
    • Sponsorship and coordination of the career-technical student organizations: DECA, and Future Business Leaders of America (FBLA).
    • Development of business education programs, such as career path clusters, exploring business technology, and entrepreneurship.

     

    Funding

    The federal Carl D. Perkins Vocational and Technical Education Act provides funds annually to support state and local business and marketing education programs.

     

    Students Served

    The largest career-technical education enrollment in California is Business and Marketing Education, serving over 650,000 students annually. Additionally, the California Department of Education supports two career-technical student organizations--DECA and FBLA. These two leadership training organizations annually serve over 9,200 students.

    More than 4,000 instructional programs in Business Education are offered in secondary schools, Regional Occupational Centers/Programs, and adult schools.

    Outcomes/Benefits

    Outcomes

    California Department of Education supports the following business and marketing programs and services resulting in a variety of tangible outcomes:

    • Staff training activities for teachers, administrators, and counselors
    • Curriculum materials which are based on content and performance standards
    • Partnerships with representatives of business and industry
    • Instructional resources, such as the Workplace Strategies Manual, Program Sequence Guide, and similar documents
    • Grade-level articulation (elementary through postsecondary)
    • On-site technical assistance in program and instructional delivery systems

    Benefits for Students

    Business and marketing education programs and services provide the following benefits for students:

    • Interpersonal, teamwork, and leadership skills necessary to function in multi-cultural business settings
    • Select and apply the tools of technology as they relate to personal and business decision making
    • Career awareness and related skills to enable students to make viable career choices and become employable in a variety of business careers
    • Communicate effectively as writers, listeners, and speakers in social and business settings
    • Become entrepreneurs by drawing from their general understanding of all aspects of business
    • Ability to participate in business transactions in both the domestic and international arenas

     

    Business Education Core Assessment Project

    Business Education Core Assessment Project
    A multiple-choice instrument that focuses on the Business Education Core Standards.

    Industry-Based Certifications

    CompTIA Partnership

    Outside Links

    Business Education Resource Consortium (Outside Source)
    Business Virtual Enterprise Programs (Outside Source)
    California Business Education Association (CBEA) (Outside Source)
    California DECA (Outside Source)
    Future Business Leaders of America (FBLA) (Outside Source)

    Contact

    Business and Marketing Education is administered by:

    California Department of Education
    Secondary, Postsecondary, and Adult Leadership Division
    High School Initiatives/Career Education Office
    1430 N Street, Suite 4503
    Sacramento, CA 95814

Juniors

Career Essentials


Primary Focus»
  • Business Core Career Preparation, Job Acquisition and Retention, Business Communication, and Employability Skills


Business Standards Covered»
CTE Foundation Standards
  • Writing FS 2.2 (2.5)
  • Written and Oral English Language Conventions FS 2.3 (1.1, 1.2, 1.3, 1.4, 1.5)
  • Listening and Speaking FS 2.4 (2.3, 2.5)
  • Career Planning and Management FS 3.0 (3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5, 3.6, 3.7)
  • Technology FS 4.0 (4.1, 4.2, 4.3, 4.4, 4.5)
  • Health and Safety FS 6.0 )6.1, 6.2, 6.3)
  • Responsibility and Flexibility FS 7.0 (7.1, 7.2, 7.3, 7.4)
  • Ethics and Responsibility FS 8.0 (8.1, 8.2, 8.3, 8.4, 8.5)
  • Leadership and Teamwork FS 9.0 (9.1, 9.2, 9.3, 9.4, 9.5)
  • Technical Knowledge and Skills Marketing, Sales and Service Sector FS 10 (10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6,10.7)
  • Technical Knowledge and Skills Finance and Business Sector FS 10 (10.1, 10.2, 10.3,10.4)
  • Technical Knowledge and Skills Information and Technology Sector FS 10 (10.1, 10.2, 10.3, 10.4, 10.5, 10.6, 10.7, 10.8)
CTE Pathway Standards
  • None applicable

Introduction»

Preparing, acquiring, and retaining a job are the key elements that determine an individual's successful employment in the workforce. Businesses use the process of announcing a job opening and then requiring an applicant to complete a job application, resume, and interview. This preliminary screening of job applicants is used to determine if an individual is the most qualified person for a position within a company.

Once an individual is employed in a business, it is necessary to continue to acquire and develop work ethic skills to retain a position and/or to move up the ladder in the company structure. In addition, it is equally as important for employees to understand and be able to demonstrate the proper procedures in the event of exiting a job.

Real World Application

Depending upon the size of a business, businesses have a human resources department, an individual responsible for hiring and retaining employees, or outsource this function. The Internet has played a very important function by enabling businesses to post job openings asking potential employees to submit their resumes and also providing an opportunity for individuals seeking employment to post their resumes at specific web sites.

There are many employment agencies that work with businesses in locating potential full-time, part-time, and temporary employees. These agencies are paid by either the business or the individual seeking employment. Businesses that use employment agencies may not have a human resources department or find that it may be more cost effective to outsource this work.

A business that has a human resources department has many responsibilities. The department hires/terminates employees, maintains all personnel records (employee evaluations, salaries, fringe benefits, staff development, job descriptions, etc.)

Individuals planning to enter the workforce or currently employed must be familiar with the protocol and functions of human resources within any business. By understanding this protocol, individuals have a better opportunity of gaining/maintaining employment and the opportunity to be considered for promotions with increased salaries.

Virtual World Application

The human resources department in the virtual companies is also responsible for creating job descriptions, attaining/retaining, promoting, and evaluating employees. The same protocol for requiring potential employees to complete job applications, resumes, cover letters, interviews, and letters of recommendations will be used just as in "real" businesses. Employees will participate in on-going staff development and become familiar with the importance and function of the human resources department.

In order for employees to be successful in the workforce, they will develop a positive work ethic by following company policies, reporting to work on time, completing assigned tasks on time, and maintaining a good attendance record. Employees will also follow the protocol for exiting a job and the importance of this piece in the employment process.

This unit is intended to provide an overview of the employment process, human resource department function, and the development of a positive work ethic in order to maintain employment in a Virtual Enterprise, along with examples and reference materials. It is recommended that Virtual Enterprises use Word in MS Office.



Objective»

Each Virtual Enterprise company will establish a human resources department.

Employees in each Virtual Enterprise company will understand the function of a human resources department and the protocol to be followed when applying for positions, participating in the evaluation process, exiting a job, and participating in staff development.

Each Virtual Enterprise company will develop employment protocol to include:

  • Job applications
  • Resumes
  • Cover letters
  • Letters of recommendation
  • Digital portfolios
  • Exiting a job

 



Implementation»

The employment process should begin as soon as the virtual company is established. Writing cover letters, resumes, obtaining letters of recommendation, and interviewing techniques should be reviewed. A human resources department should be created to handle the employment needs.


Recommended Steps to Follow»
Quarter 1
  1. Research the Internet for samples of cover letters, resumes, obtaining letters of recommendation, and interviewing techniques in order to land the VE job. An outside speaker is an excellent source in landing a VE job. In addition, proper procedures for exiting a job and applying for another position within the company should be researched and discussed.
  2. The company should establish a human resources department, write job descriptions, and announce positions available for employment. Research the Internet for sample documents. Also, visiting a human resources department of a business partner would be helpful.
  3. Potential employees apply for positions and are interviewed by the human resources department head or whomever the company has established as the interviewer. Search for videos/DVDs, contact a Career Center Counselor for information, and research for materials in the library.
  4. Establish a code of conduct for all employees.
  5. Throughout the year, the human resources department continues to require employees to demonstrate positive Work Ethics by providing information in e-mails, staff development workshops, rewarding employees for performance, and create an environment that generates employee success in the workplace. A company policy for employee terminations and resignations should be established and required for all employees.
  6. Continue to work with the company's established Business Partner for discussions and assistance with workplace operations.
Quarter 4
  1. All employees will be required to create a digital portfolio.
  2. All employees will be required to follow the procedures for exiting a job. This may be completed by letters of resignation.

Other Resources»

See the following web sites for further information:

Writing cover letters: Writing resumes: Obtaining letters of recommendation: Interviewing techniques: Exiting a job:

**************************

Employee Evaluations


Introduction»
Real World Application
  • The purpose of the employee evaluation process is to review and assess the employee's accomplishments during the evaluation period and to set new goals for improved performance. Employees are expected to demonstrate accomplishments and continuing progress in all areas of the performance criteria. This process is also useful when determining candidates for promotion or raises.
Virtual World Application
  • Employee evaluations play a valuable role in the Virtual Enterprise simulation. As in the real world, the purpose of the employee evaluation process is to review and assess the employee's accomplishments during the evaluation period and to set new goals. Not only is this procedure helpful to the employer, but it also provides the employee with valuable feedback concerning how their performance is viewed by company management. Employee evaluations are the essential record of short- and long-term performance and are among the primary documents considered in the assignment of the Virtual Business course grade.


Business Standards Covered»
CTE Foundation Standards
  • Professional Work Demeanor: FS7.7.1
  • Accountability and Responsibility: FS7.7.2, FS7.7.3, FS7.7.4
  • Leadership and Teamwork: FS9.9.1, FS9.9.3, FS9.9.4, FS9.9.5

Objective»

Evaluation of the virtual business employee's (VE student) job performance



Implementation»

Prior to the beginning of the employee evaluation period, the employee MUST be given a copy of the Employee Performance Evaluation Criteria. After the Human Resource representative has reviewed the evaluation criteria with the employee, the Acknowledgement of Employee Evaluation Criteria, which is located at the end of the above stated form, should be completed and signed. A copy of the document is to be given to the employee and the original is to be filed in the employee's personnel file.

Who uses the Employee Evaluation documents? Why?
  • VE Consultant - employee assessment and grade assignment
  • VE Company Supervisor/Manager - subordinate employee assessment
  • VE Employee - self-assessment
Evaluating the Employee

Print a copy of all of the evaluation tools you will need before beginning an evaluation. Multiple evaluation tools are provided in this unit. It is the individual virtual business' responsibility to review and determine which evaluation tools best suit its company. The evaluation tools are listed in the "Other Resources" at the end of this unit or under "Samples."

Areas of evaluation include:

  • Performance Factors - knowledge, skills, abilities; quality of work; quantity of work; attitude; communication, attendance/participation
  • Behavioral Traits - dependability; cooperation; initiative; adaptability; judgment; attendance; punctuality; attire
  • Managerial Skills - leadership; delegation; supervision; planning and organization; administration; staff management

 

Grade Assignment

The Employee Performance Evaluation is among the primary documents considered in the assignment of the Virtual Business course grade. The VE Coordinator is responsible for reviewing the Employee Performance Evaluation conducted by the VE company supervisor/manager to ensure unbiased and fair employee assessment. The VE Coordinator has unrestricted authority to override any and all recommendations made by the VE company supervisor/manager. It is the VE Coordinator's responsibility to assign grades.

Recommendations concerning the grading scale for the Employee Evaluation have been provided within the Employee Performance Evaluation Criteria.

Grievance Procedures

If an employee feels that he/she received an unfair evaluation, the employee has the right to file a grievance. Grievance procedures can be found on the CA VE website under Curriculum, Employee Evaluation Lessons.



Recommended Steps to Follow»
Step 1: Determine Evaluation Tools to be Used

Review the evaluation tools provided in this unit and determine which tools best suit your company.

Step 2: Educate Employees about Job Performance Expectations

Review the evaluation criteria / job performance expectations with each employee to be evaluated (including management). This can be done individually or in a staff development setting.

Step 3: Inform Employees

Provide each employee with a copy of the Employee Performance Evaluation Criteria.

Step 4: Obtain Employee's Acknowledgement of Employee Performance Evaluation Criteria

Require all employees to sign off on the Acknowledgement of Employee Performance Evaluation Criteria form, which is located at the end of the Employee Performance Evaluation Criteria. The original signed document must be retained in the employee's personnel file.

Step 5: Determine Evaluation Period

Determine the period of evaluation and notify affected employees. It is recommended that both weekly and monthly evaluations be conducted.

  • Weekly - Refer to the Weekly Workflow & Evaluations for documents to be used for weekly employee progress and evaluation.
  • Monthly - Refer to the Employee Performance Evaluation Criteria and Score Sheets for documents to be used for monthly employee progress and evaluation.

 

Step 6: Collect Evidence

During the evaluation period, collect information and documents to support the evaluation. Be sure to keep your evaluation tools and evidence well organized so that you can complete your evaluation quickly and easily. You may want to keep a journal, making note of problem areas and areas of notable job performance. Remember, employee evaluations are not only used for pointing out areas of needed improvement, but are also used to acknowledge outstanding performance.

Step 7: Review Collected Evidence

At the end of the evaluation period, review all evidence collected. It is advisable that you organize the evidence and write a summary of your findings.

Step 8: Complete the Employee Performance Evaluation Score Sheet

It is imperative that the evaluation is fair and unbiased. Low scores and high scores must have supporting evidence and/or a narrative justifying the score.

Step 9: Meet with Employee

Schedule an appointment with the employee. During your meeting, review the evaluation and the supporting evidence. Both management and the employee must sign off on the review in the area provided.

Step 10: Grievance Procedures

Inform the employee of his/her right to file a grievance if not agreeable with the evaluation. Inform the employee where to find the Grievance Procedures.

Step 11: Document Employee's Personnel File

Place original copy of the employee's evaluation, along with its supporting evidence, in the employee's personnel file. Provide the employee with a copy of his/her evaluation.

Step 12: Determine Next Period of Evaluation

Begin with Step 4 and the start the process all over again.



Other Resources»
Employee Performance Tools Weekly Performance Tools

JUNIORS

Entrepreneurship


Primary Focus»
  • CTE Foundations standards: Economics principals, reading, writing, listening and speaking, problem solving and critical thinking, leadership and teamwork, technical knowledge and skills, responsibility and flexibility.
  • Entrepreneurship pathway standards: Characteristics of entrepreneurs, types of businesses, market research, analysis of potential business, role and importance of entrepreneurs.


Business Standards Covered»
CTE Foundation Standards:
  • Economics: 1.1.3(12.2.5), 1.1.3(12.2.8), 1.1.3(12.4.2), 1.1.3(12.4.3)
  • Reading: 2.2.1(2.3), 2.2.1(2.5.5), 2.2.1(2.6)
  • Writing: 2.2.2(1.3), 2.2.2(1.6), 2.2.2(2.6)
  • Listening and Speaking: 2.2.4(1.1), 2.2.4(1.3), 2.2.4(1.7), 2.2.4(2.5), 2.2.4(2.6)
  • Problem Solving and Critical Thinking: 5.5.1, 5.5.3, 5.5.4
  • Responsibility and Flexibility: 7.7.1, 7.7.2, 7.7.3, 7.7.4
  • Leadership and Teamwork: 9.9.1, 9.9.3, 9.9.4, 9.9.5
  • Technical Knowledge and Skills: 10.10.1, 10.10.2
CTE Entrepreneurship Pathway Standards:
  • Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs: B1.1.1
  • Types of Business Ownership: B1.1.2
  • Market Research: B2.2.2
  • Analyze a Potential Business: B2.2.5
  • Role and Importance of Entrepreneurship: B5.5.1


Introduction»
What is an entrepreneur?

Entrepreneurs assume risk. This makes them different from employees who are people that work for a company. Employees and entrepreneurs both make decisions but entrepreneurs are directly affected by the consequences of those decisions. People that own, operate and take the risk of a business venture are called entrepreneurs.

Types of businesses:
  1. Manufacturing companies - actually produce the products they sell. Examples:
    • Apparel and textile products
    • Chemicals and related products
    • Electronics and other electrical equipment
    • Fabricated metal products
    • Food products
    • Industrial machinery and equipment
    • Printing and publishing
    • Rubber and plastic products
    • Stone, clay and glass products
  2. Wholesale companies - sell products to people other than the final customer. Examples:
    • Apparel
    • Electronics
    • Food related items
    • Hardware and equipment
    • Lumber and construction materials
    • Paper and paper products
    • Petroleum and petroleum products
  3. Retail companies - sell products directly to the people that consume them. Examples:
    • Auto and home supply stores
    • Clothing stores
    • Florists
    • Furniture stores
    • Gift, novelty and souvenir stores
    • Grocery stores
    • Jewelry stores
    • Shoe stores
    • Sporting goods stores
  4. Service companies - sell services rather than products. Examples:
    • Automotive repair
    • Bookkeeping
    • Consulting
    • Travel agency
    • Investments services
    • Painting
    • Plumbing
    • Hotels
    • Hairdresser
Entrepreneurs and the Economy

Entrepreneurs provide many benefits to the country they live in. Entrepreneurs make business more efficient by comming up with innovative ideas and products. Entrepreneurs create jobs for the communities they operate in. 90% of all businesses in the United States are small businesses with less than 20 employees. Entrepreneurs come from very diverse backgrounds. There are 8.5 million women-owned businesses in the United States. These businesses account for more than one-third of all businesses and generate more than $3 trillion in revenue.

Characteristics of Successful Entrepreneurs
  1. Develop a habit of reading - successful entrepreneurs are voracious learners. They read biographies of famouse people, devour books on strategy, product development and trends. They also stay current by reading newspapers and online sites.
  2. Overpowering need to achieve - always wanting to be successful at something. Not all of them are academic stars, but they all wanted to be successful.
  3. Get started young - most entrepreneurs started selling products or services as teenagers. They love to make money.
  4. Positive mental attitude - exhibiting self confidence and believing in your own abilities is essential to success.
  5. Marathon workers - There is no such thing as a 40 hour week. In fact, a 60 hour week would be considered a vacation. Successful entrepreneurs love to work.
  6. Surround yourself with smart people - successful entrepreneurs surround themselves with smart people that aren't afraid to ask questions. They hate "yes" people and appreciate confident people that push back.
  7. Intellectual curiosity - they are interested in learning about other businesses, listening to other people's stories and questioning why things are a certain way.
  8. "NO" is not in their vocabulary - barriers are just challenges.
  9. Big thinkers - entrepreneurs think about how they might have a big impact on their industry, region and country.
  10. Ability to accept change - change occurs frequently when you own your own business, entrepreneurs thrive on change and their businesses grow.
  11. Good listeners - some people like to hear the sound of their own voice, but successful people are good listeners.
  12. Unique vision - they see things differently than everyone else. They have a gut instinct about trends and opportunities that have been honed through experience, observation and reading.
  13. Fearless - successful entrepreneurs don't worry or shy away from adversity.
  14. Competitive spirit - they love competition. Typically these people love to compete athletically or through the arts. The tougher the competition, the more pumped up they become.

Objective»

All Virtual Enterprise employees will be able to participate in the entrepreneurial process by having input on the type of company their class chooses to become. Class members will discuss different types of businesses (manufacturing, wholesaling, retail and service). They will also be able to brainstorm different ideas for new businesses and compare opportunites.


Implementation»

Time line: 1st Quarter


Recommended Steps to Follow»
  1. Break the class into groups of four. Explain that brainstorming in groups is usually more productive than brainstorming individually. Have the groups brainstorm ideas for a new company. Make sure that each group has at least one idea for each type of business (manufacturing, wholesaling, retail and service). Encourage the class to be creative with their ideas. All ideas should be written down no matter how wild they seem. Have each group elect a person to write down all the ideas the group is able to come up with. Each group will also need to elect a presenter.
  2. Once each gruop has had time to brainstorm at least 4 ideas, have them send their presenter to the front of the class to present their 2 best ideas.
  3. The groups will compare their 2 favorite ideas. This is to identify which idea has the best chance for success. Each group will answer the following questions for their 2 favorite business opportunities.
    1. Is there a need in my community for this kind of business? Answer this question in terms of the Virtual community and your real community. Will people buy this product or service?
    2. How much money would it take to start this business? Will I be able to borrow that much money?
    3. What are the particular risks associated with this business. What is the rate of business failure in that industry sector?
    4. Does the class have the necessary background to run this kind of business?
    5. What is the potential for profit for this company?
    6. What is the competitive environment like for your idea?
    7. What is my business advantage over other firms?
  4. A student from each group will present the results of their comparison to the class. Each group will tell the class which of their ideas was the best aand why.
  5. The class will compare each group's favorite idea and then vote on which company idea has the best opportunity for success.

Resources»

International Trade


Primary Focus»
  • Business Core: Business Communications; Business Environment; Economics and Financial Concepts; Information Technologies; Decision Making; Financial Analysis; Financial Markets; Risk Analysis; Trade Finance; Economics; International Business; Global Marketing; Marketing Strategies; Promotion; Entrepreneurship


Business Standards Covered»
CTE Foundations Standards
  • Business Communications: FS2.2.5, FS2.2.2(2.5a), FS2.2.2(2.6a-c)
  • Economics and Financial Concepts: FS1.1.3(12.6), FS1.1.3(12.6.1)
  • Information Technologies: FS4.4.2
  • Decision Making: FS5.5.1
  • Financial Analysis: FS5.5.4
  • Economics: FS1.1.3(12.1), FS1.1.3(12.1.1), FS1.1.3(12.1.2)
CTE Pathway Standards
  • Accounting: A1.1.2, A3.3.3
  • Entrepreneurship: B1.1.4, B4.4.2, B4.4.3, B4.4.4, B5.5.2
  • Sales and Marketing: D1.1.2, D1.1.3, D1.1.4, D3.3.1, D3.3.2, D3.3.3


Introduction»

Most business activities are domestic. That is too say that they occur within a country's own borders. Specifically, domestic trade is the process of making, buying, and selling goods and services within one country. On the other hand, international trade includes making, buying, and/or selling good and services across national borders.

Why participate in international trade?
  • the products consumers want are made in another country
  • the source materials used to make a product are in another country
  • it increases opportunities for individuals, companies, and nations to gain wealth

Just as with domestic trade there are some barriers to international trade. This unit will allow students to examine those barriers and learn to successfully trade despite them.



Objective»
  1. Students will be able to define the following international trade concepts (click for examples of each):
    1. tariff
    2. quota
    3. export controls
    4. Foreign-Trade Zone (FTZ)
    5. exchange rate
  2. Students will be able to determine the export potential of a given product
  3. Students will be able to assess the export readiness of a given company
  4. Students will be able to determine which of the following exporting considerations apply to a given company and how:
    1. freight forwarders
    2. production price vs. export price
    3. quotations and pro forma invoices
    4. cultural factors
    5. business practices in international selling
    6. building a working relationship with an international customer
  5. Students will be able to develop an export plan


Implementation»
Time Line: 1st Quarter

Step 1: Review international trade concepts, export potential, export readiness, and exporting considerations with students. See Objectives A - D.

Step 2: Assess student comprehension with this assessment: CLICK HERE.

Step 3: Construct Export Plan. The Export Plan is one of the most important assignments of a third year Virtual Enterprise and should be presented along with the strategic plan. Therefore, begin constructing the Export Plan immediately after completing the strategic plan. Expect to spend four to six weeks constructing the Export Plan. Note that revisions may take additional time. Quality time should be spent on preparing the Financial Statements, based on the previous' year operating income and gross sales. (See Accounting and Finance).



Recommended Steps to Follow»
What are the restricted countries where I may not sell my goods?

You cannot think only of "restricted countries" because some of our export controls apply worldwide. Where you may or may not ship your goods varies with each transaction and depends on the nature of the goods, the identity of the proposed recipient of the goods, and the activity or activities in which the recipient is involved. You must determine that information before you can decide whether you need an export license. In some situations, the Export Administration Regulations (EAR) requires an export license for shipments to any country in the world (even Canada, in rare circumstances). Part 746 of the EAR lists countries that are subject to embargoes or other special controls. Presently, there are seven countries for which shipment of almost all commodities requires a license for export. Those countries are Iran, Iraq, Libya, Serbia, Sudan, North Korea, and Cuba.



Evaluation Rubric»

An International Trade Rubric and Grade Summary have been provided for evaluation purposes.



Other Resources»

See the following web sites for further information regarding international trade:


E-Marketing Lesson


Introduction»
Real World Application

As the world economy becomes globalized and technology changes the business infrastructure, companies must learn to market themselves in other languages. There are many good reasons for companies to take the international online market seriously:

  • Increased international sales
  • Internet use growing exponentially outside the U.S./Canada: by 2002, analysts estimate that 66% of Internet use and 40% of e-commerce revenue will come from outside the U.S. (Source: IDC).
  • Sheer size of the non-English market: recent figures show that 70% of the world's purchasing power and 92% of the world's population live in countries where English is not the native language.
  • Projection: by 2005, 75% of the worldwide online population will access the Internet in a language other than English (when there will be around a billion people online).
Why Sell To International Markets?

It is all in the numbers: Nearly half of all Internet users live in Asia and Europe. Today there are 238 million non-English speaking Internet users. Over half of the online population accesses the Internet in another language than English, and this figure will grow to 75% by 2005 (when there will be around a billion people online). And by 2003, two-thirds of all e-commerce spending will originate outside the U.S. If you make the effort to address these non-English-speaking markets now, before your competition does, you will have an enormous competitive advantage over your competitors who arrive later on.

It is undeniable that globalization is no longer an option but a strategic imperative for all but the smallest corporations. The Internet is increasingly the element that holds the global economy all together, as it makes the marketplace into a 24/7 event that takes place everywhere at once. The potential for cross-border trade has never been stronger. Benefits of international marketing:

  • Increased Sales - When domestic sales are good, the time is ripe for you to start exporting.
  • Higher Profits - Your profits can rise faster, if your company's fixed costs are covered by domestic operations.
  • Reduction of Dependence on Traditional Markets - You can strengthen your company by diversifying into international markets.
  • Diversified Markets - Companies that market internationally can take advantage of booming export markets.
  • New Knowledge, Experience and Enhanced Domestic Competitiveness - Expand your horizons! Often, new ideas, new approaches, and new marketing techniques learned from exposure to the global marketplace can be successfully applied domestically.
  • Global Competitiveness - Today, many companies outside your country are entering your local market, as they are exporting worldwide. Exporting paves the way to global competitiveness.
Virtual World Application

The Virtual Enterprise World is not much different from the real world. You are marketing the same products and services that companies in the real world do and therefore it is essential for your VE to tap into the international market by making your website multilingual and using your bilingual employees to translate advertisements, send emails and communicate orally at trade fairs and business conferences.



Objective»

All Virtual Enterprise employees will have an understanding of international marketing concepts and complete the five-part Lesson (as stated below) within the timeframe specified. Extra credit is available for the Technology and/or Marketing Departments.



Implementation»

E-marketing is an activity that becomes increasingly more important as your VE develops. Specifically when you are a VE in the second year of operation, your Technology and Marketing Departments will need to get together to develop their E-marketing plan. Start this assignment as soon as your website is up and running and increase the time spent on this activity before international trade fairs.



Lesson»

Given the information below, you will:

  1. Provide five explanations why your VE should sell to international markets.
  2. What is the basic requirement for being visible in a country?
  3. Define "guerilla marketing" and explain why this may be more effective than attracting customers through search engines.
  4. Write down four strategies to promote your site online.
  5. What is the maximum download time for each web page?
    • Bonus: With the information provided under "Additional Resources", use Alta Vista Translator to translate your web site in a foreign language.
How To Get Started

The basic requirement for being visible in a country is to appear in the indexes, directories and search engines of that country. Now that there are more web pages on the internet than human beings on the planet, the first step to take after developing a web site is to ensure that potential visitors can find it. Most people turn to the search engines and directories to start their search for a specific product or service. By establishing a presence here, you are greatly increasing the chances of bringing visitors to your client's site. Getting registered on directories and search engines is the most logical and cost-effective means to placing your web site where potential visitors start their searches on the Internet.

When web users outside of English-speaking countries search for something on the web, they search in their native language. You can make it easy for them to find your client's site by registering their website in these international indexes. As far as web promotion goes, this step is the strict minimum to bring visitors to their website from other countries. It is like them having their company listed in the local phone book.

Guerilla Marketing

Online promotion (also called "guerilla marketing") is based on bringing traffic to your website from other niche-specific search engines and directories, e-magazines, discussion forums, chat groups, newsletters, discussion groups, Newsgroups, etc. These are places on the internet where people with similar interests would congregate. People are often more apt to visit your website if they are already reading about a particular subject, and they see a link to your client's website (same-subject) than simply by clicking on a banner. Your site might attract higher quality visitors from this web promotion technique than from search engines.

Forums Research and Participation

Bulletin boards, message boards, and discussion groups are excellent and often overlooked marketing tools. They can be quite effective because they help develop relationships with prospects and customers. From building customer loyalty to providing customer assistance, participating in group discussions can help your business build an excellent reputation with discussion group members. These forums can provide your business with the opportunity to let others know about your products and/or services. These forums are extremely subject-specific, so that if someone talks about your company's offering in one of the forums that has to do with the subject-matter of your product or service, they are sure to get several people asking for details after each message posted. Extremely qualified and interested prospects, wouldn't you say?

Here are some ideas that can be used to promote a site online:

  1. Identify and monitor the right discussion groups;
  2. Develop content from the hot topics your prospects discuss;
  3. Participate effectively and get your sales message out without turning people off;
  4. Build your "brand" and your business by becoming a valued participant in a few selected groups.

Similar to e-zines, discussion lists are done through e-mail. But the difference, however, is that subscribers may participate in the discussions as each person's e-mailed contribution is mailed to every other subscriber. On the other hand, discussion board messages are posted on a web page; the top of the page being the most recent post. The advantage of discussions boards over discussion lists is the fact that posts can be viewed by anyone.

Direct Marketing

Direct marketing is a well-established industry in itself to easily communicate directly with potential customers who already have expressed an interest in your business' particular product or service. A marketing message can be distributed by fax or by email. This is an excellent way of attracting potential customers to your website.

Besides direct mail (by post, the most common - and expensive - means of direct marketing), there are two principal means of broadcasting an advertising message:

  • By fax mailing (highly developed in most all countries)
  • By direct email (quite developed in English-speaking countries, somewhat developed in Europe outside of Germany, where it is illegal).
Download Time

Create web pages with your target audience in mind. The download time for each page should be kept to between 15 and 30 seconds, with 45 seconds at a maximum.

The designers of the Note Book Mall designed their entire site assuming 28.8 modum users. The used-computer-company reduced the logo size and tried to limit downloading time to between 15 and 20 seconds for each page.

Some customers turn off graphics altogether. For these people, include alternate text (the ALT tag in HTML) for each image and make sure the text explains why it's there.

Avoid large graphics on entry-level pages. While retailers note the need for eye-appealing pictures, the most-traversed pages should have smaller graphics. Save the bigger, better graphics for a few layers down on the site. Also, avoid nested tables (placing an HTML table within another HTML table). Nested tables on many browsers dramatically slow display time.

Some Facts and Figures Regarding International E-Marketing

According to the Direct Marketing Association, 113 million American catalog shoppers will order more than $75 billion (UK milliard) worth of goods in 1997. Projections from the market research firm International Data Corporation (IDC) indicate about 9 million computer users will order just $5.4 billion worth of products on the Internet this year. Though figures vary, the future looks brighter, with projections ranging from $73 to $100 billion for the year 2000. Forrester Research forecasts business-to-business e-commerce at $66 billion in U.S.-related Internet revenues, while improved security and the increasing number of households on the Internet drive consumer retail to $7 billion by 2000. IDC projects that growth of sales combined with an increase in the number of users buying and selling goods and services on the World Wide Web will boost commerce on the Internet to $100 billion in the year 2000.

Alta Vista Translator

Have you tried the translation service at AltaVista? Go to http://www.altavista.com Then submit any query, then click on "translate" next to any of the items in the results list. Or go straight to the translation page by clicking on the "Translations" tab above the query box or by going to http://babelfish.altavista.com. There you can enter a URL, or type or cut-and-paste any text into the box, and you can translate from English to French, German, Italian, Spanish, or Portuguese; or from any of those languages to English. Unless the server is extraordinarily busy, you get the results almost immediately. And unless the text is idiomatic or laden with slang, you are likely to get remarkably good translations.

Because the software runs on Digital's powerful Alpha computer systems at the AltaVista site, you get very fast results (though response- time may slow somewhat when tens of thousands of users make requests at the same moment). And the translation service is intimately tied into the AltaVista search service, making translation part of your normal Web-navigating experience. Whenever you do a search, matches in your results list that are in any of the six languages now covered come with a "translate" link. Clicking on that takes you to a page where you select the language you want to translate it to. Then clicking on "translate" again, provides you with the page itself, with all its graphic look and feel, including all its hyperlinks -- with the text in the language of your choice. From there you can continue to explore as you normally do in the Web environment.

There are limitations. Today the service only provides translations between English and five European languages, not among those European languages (e.g., French to German) and not any of the other major languages of the world (such as Arabic, Japanese, Chinese, and Russian). Also, because of performance issues, the size of the text it will translate is limited: normally about 5-10 Kbytes (which about one to two times the size of the text of the average Web page), but varying to balance performance based on usage. Also, keep in mind that this service only translates plain text. Words embedded in graphics remain unchanged.



Selling Your Virtual Product


Primary Focus»
  • Business Core: Business Communications, Leadership Development;
  • Business Management: Management Principles;
  • Marketing: Global Marketing, Promotion, Selling Concepts


Business Standards Covered»
  • Business Core :1.1.1; 1.1.6; 1.7.4;
  • Business Management :3.3.4;
  • Marketing : 5.2.8; 5.5.2; 5.6.3; 5.6.5; 5.6.6


Introduction»
Real World Application

Everyone, everywhere sells something. You might be selling a product, a service, and idea or concept, or yourself. Whether tangible or intangible, the same basic principles of salesmanship apply and can be adapted to almost any situation. There are important factors that can impact the success of your interaction with customers. Every customer is different and a good salesman knows how to operate successfully with all type of customers. You may not like selling but you will be involved in the activity numerous times throughout your lifetime.

Virtual World Application

Every employee of a virtual enterprise will be directly or indirectly involved in sales. It is important for all employees to understand the sales process in order to support the sales efforts. The best way to sell anything is face to face. The opportunity to do this in the virtual world is limited to visiting other sites, visitors on site, and activities such as trade fairs. However, the sales job must be ongoing throughout the year. Remember.everyone is a salesman.be prepared!



Objective»

All Virtual Enterprise employees will understand the basics of good selling techniques including the ability to demonstrate product knowledge, dress appropriately, interact with a variety of customer personality types, represent the company in a positive way, close a sale, and process necessary paperwork.



Implementation»

There is an old saying in the retail industry - NOTHING HAPPENS UNTIL SOMETHING GETS SOLD. This section is designed to help you make sales happen, and is based on these truths.

  1. Sales don't just happen.
  2. Selling skills can be learned.
  3. Everyone can learn to be an effective salesperson.
  4. Customers don't care how much you know until they know how much you care.
  5. If sales are done correctly, the customers will be very satisfied and the company will be profitable. (5.6.3, 5.6.6)

These truths, or maxims, come directly from the training given by Fortune 500 companies to their sales force. They are nearly universally accepted, although they may be stated in different words. Let's expand on them a bit.



Recommended Steps to Follow»


Other Resources»

There are numerous resources on the web for information about trade shows in general and about actual trade show throughout the world. The following sites will also lead to other trade show sites and information:


SELLING YOUR VIRTUAL PRODUCT 

LESSON PLAN

 

 

KEY CONCEPT: (Marketing Sales & Service Industry Sector)

                        (VE: International Trade Pathway)

Student will understand the process of selling in different venues.

 

PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVES:  Students will be able to: understand the basics of good selling techniques including the ability to demonstrate product knowledge, dress appropriately, interact with a variety of customer personality types, represent the company in a positive way, close a sale, and process necessary paperwork.

 

TECHNICAL STANDARDS ADDRESSED:  (C: International Trade Pathway)

C1.1  Evaluate emerging products, services, and business models in relation to the creation, setup, and management of network communication products and services.

 

ACADEMIC SKILLS REINFORCED:  (2.0 Communications)

(9-10)  R  2.5  Extend ideas presented in primary or secondary sources through original analysis, evaluation, and elaboration.

(11-12) W 1.1  Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of discourse (e.g., purpose, speaker, audience, form) when completing narrative, expository, persuasive, or descriptive writing assignments.

 

FOUNDATION OR ESLRS ADDRESSED: (5.0 Problem and Critical Thinking & 10. Technical Knowledge and Skills)

5.1  Apply appropriate  problem-solving strategies and critical thinking skills to work-related issues and tasks.

10.1 Use the marketing information management concepts, systems, and tools needed to obtain, evaluate, and disseminate information for use in making marketing decisions.

MATERIALS: There are numerous resources on the web for information about trade shows in general and about actual trade shows throughout the world. The following sites will also lead to other trade show sites and information:

·            http://www.info-now.com

·            http://www.ideacafe.com

·            http://www.advantekinc.com

·            http://www.imagespecialist.com

·            http://www.siskindtraining.com

·            http://www.tsdsc.com

·            http://www.exhibitorease.com

·            http://www.tradeshowweek.com

·            http://www.tscentral.com

·            http://www.bizland.com

·            http://www.iondesigngroup.com

·            http://www.woznymedia.com

·            http://ca.essortment.com/tradeshowbooth_rxub.htm

·            http://www.allbusiness.com

 

MOTIVATION/OPENER            Everyone, everywhere sells something. You might be selling a product, a service, an idea or concept, or yourself. Whether tangible or intangible, the same basic principles of salesmanship apply and can be adapted to almost any situation. There are important factors that can impact the success of your interaction with customers. Every customer is different and a good salesperson knows how to operate successfully with all types of customers. You may not like selling but you will be involved in the activity numerous times throughout your lifetime.

 

Every employee of a Virtual Enterprise will be directly or indirectly involved in sales. It is important for all employees to understand the sales process in order to support the sales efforts. The best way to sell anything is face to face. The opportunity to do this in the virtual world is limited to visiting other sites, visitors on site, and activities such as trade fairs. However, the sales job must be ongoing throughout the year.

PRESENTATION: (Teacher Activities) There is an old saying in the retail industry - NOTHING HAPPENS UNTIL SOMETHING GETS SOLD. This section is designed to help you make sales happen, and is based on these truths.

  1. Sales don't just happen.
  2. Selling skills can be learned.
  3. Everyone can learn to be an effective salesperson.
  4. Customers don't care how much you know until they know how much you care.
  5. If sales are done correctly, the customers will be very satisfied and the company will be profitable.

These truths, or maxims, come directly from the training given by Fortune 500 companies to their sales force. They are nearly universally accepted, although they may be stated in different words. Let's expand on them a bit.

 

·            Sales don’t just happen. For a business to be successful, planning and research are required. Some products carry nearly universal appeal, such as televisions. Others are age-specific, gender-specific, or limited to a specific interest group, such as skateboards.

·            Selling skills can be learned. “Natural-born” salespeople are really just excellent communicators. The skills needed to be a successful salesperson are not difficult to develop, and are refined through practice.

·            Everyone can learn to be an effective salesperson. Just as with any other skill, some people will learn faster than others, but everyone can improve their skills by practicing.

·            If sales are done correctly, the customers will be very satisfied and the company will be profitable. Research has shown that a satisfied customer will tell three people how nice their buying experience was with you, while a dissatisfied customer will tell twenty people how bad it was. Satisfied customers will bring you more business, and these referrals will be ready to buy from you. Dissatisfied customers will cost you sales, and rarely will you even know why.

 

The virtual sales world uses many of the same sales techniques as the real world. However, virtual sales differ in several ways.

·        Limited market. Generally, you will be selling to other virtual enterprises, employees of other virtual enterprises, and on occasion to guests (visitors) to your business.

·        Limited face-to-face contact with your customers. Most of your business will be conducted electronically from your web page, via email, fax, or by telephone.

·        No physical product. You are selling an idea, not a box that the customer can carry out. You cannot demonstrate the product, and you cannot demonstrate differences in product performance. Imagine an electronics store with no power, or buying a new car from a catalog.

·        Most virtual businesses are monopolies. However, this has not prevented individuals and businesses from refusing to make purchases from virtual companies who perform unsatisfactorily. After all, if you can’t get the virtual water company to respond to your needs, you don’t take a virtual shower and your virtual lawn dies. This relates directly to customer satisfaction.

·        Limited hours of operation. Most businesses are open at least eight hours on business days; virtual businesses are open less than two. Additionally, it is not the same two from one virtual business to another. The company you need to lease a car from may not be open when you are. This makes communications slow, even though email is fast.

·        Visual communication is vital. Because you have no physical product, you have no showroom. Since the daily hours are limited, you may not get many opportunities to make face-to-face sales presentations. Because of these factors, your visual sales materials become extremely important. This includes your web page, catalog, and advertisements. They must invite the customer to purchase your products, and do much of the selling without you. For an outstanding example of a website, go to http://www.towerhobbies.com.

 

APPLICATION: (Student Activities) In groups of 2-3, students research the following terms and share answers:

1.      Indirect sales

2.      Electronic Data Interchange

3.      Customer service policy

4.      Multi Level Marketing

5.      Stress Management

6.      Empathy

7.      Conflict Resolution

8.      Listening Skills

9.      Sales Quota

10.  Consignment Sales

 

Students role-play The Process of Selling for better understanding of the six (6) steps:

 

I.  The Process of selling any product or service can be broken into five steps:

 

·            Greet the Customer

·            Qualify

·            Present the product

·            Overcome objections

·            Close the sale

·            Follow up

 

1.      Greet the customer. This can be done in many ways. Avoid “Can I help you” as that elicits the automatic response “Just looking.” A much better greeting would be “Hello. Welcome to XYZ Widgets. I’m John Salestar. How may I be of assistance today?”

2.      Qualify. Ask questions to find out what are the customer’s wants and needs. Do they already know exactly what they want, or do they need your expertise in order to select the product that will be best for them? The website needs to have a logical flow to help the customer qualify themselves, perhaps a checklist or table for each product category.

3.      Present the product. “Based on what you’ve told me, I recommend this model. It has (feature customer wanted), (another feature customer wanted), and even adds (a feature customer might not even know about).”

4.      Overcome objections. If a customer still isn’t ready to buy, why not? Some examples:

P      Price. If the price is an objection, ask, “Well, which features are you willing to give up?”

P      It’s not on sale. Response: “If I can get you the sale price now will you buy it now?”

P      Customer doesn’t need it. Go back to Qualifying.

5.      Close the sale. Ask for the sale! If you discover early on (during qualifying) that the customer has already made in informed decision, ask them to buy it. Don’t get so anxious to give your presentation that you overlook the signs that your customer is ready to close the sale. Many salespeople have lost sales by talking when they should have been listening.

6.      Follow up. Once you make the sale, continue to build a relationship for future sales or referrals.

 

Once you’ve asked for the sale, BE QUIET! In the Closing Game, the person who talks first loses the advantage. If the customer says “Yes,” you win. If the customer comes up with another objection, you’re still in the game. Overcome it and try to close again. ABC—Always be Closing!

 

When the selling process has been demonstrated, students, then, research Internet websites within the Virtual Enterprise world to analyze each industry’s websites to determine what are quality, reliable, and user friendly components of each link within the website. The class discusses and compiles a list for the company Webmaster to use when creating the website. An Internet search for Internet Commerce will give material to evaluate and help with the plan for the website.

 

II. The Company Website – In addition to supplying visitors with information about the company, the following five steps need to be adapted for the website to be a successful sales tool.

 

A company website should be far more flexible than a paper catalog because it can be updated nearly instantly. It is also more cost effective because printing and mailing expenses can be eliminated altogether.

 

1.      Greet the customer. The home page may be the first introduction to the company a customer may have. It is important that it reflect the quality of the products/services offered. Make it pleasing to the eye (remember your customer base will be diverse so consider what others might like and/or dislike). It’s a good idea to get another opinion before you spend an inordinate amount of time on a “far out” page.

2.      Qualify. You may have to make some assumptions about customer likes and dislikes. This can be modified as a result of customer surveys, etc. Take into consideration their questions and supply a place for “Frequently Asked Questions” to be answered and easily located.

3.      Present the Product. Group things in a way that customers would want to see them. Be sure all links work and are easy to identify. This is a very critical step. Do some surfing of your own and make a list of features you find that are good and bad. Incorporate the good things.

4.      Overcome Objections. About the only way to overcome objections is to provide the customers with good information. This is where the selling comes in. Involve the sales team because they are the “experts.” Use their input!

5.      Close the Sale. Probably the best way to close the sale on a website is to provide an on-line order form. This takes some advanced expertise and may take awhile to put together, but it will be worth it in the long run. If this option is not available, then be sure to supply obvious links to the sales department and/or specific employees e-mail contact.

 

Suggestion: Pick a product in your line and search for retailers of that product. Put yourself in the role of the customer and look at the sites you find with a critical eye as to what about them is easy to use and encourage you to make a purchase. Incorporate those elements into your own website. http://www.entrepreneur.com/startingabusiness/businessideas/index.html has a large database of suggestions.

 

Basic Guidelines:

 

1.      Use MS FrontPage® if it available. If not, MS Word® or MS Publisher® will work.

2.      Keep it professional. No dancing hamsters, etc.

3.      Clean and neat. Avoid numerous photos unless they are compressed.

4.      Avoid the overuse of animation. Long loading times are annoying.

5.      Use Arial or Times New Roman fonts.

6.      Contrast the fonts with the background. Dark fonts on a light background work best.

 

III. Selling at a Trade Fair

 

Trade fairs are a great opportunity to promote your company and make direct contact with your customers. Trade fairs will be your best opportunity to use your sales skills - - Greet the customer, Qualify, Present the product, Overcome objections, Close the sale. Hundreds of people (potential customers!) will be attending the trade fair, and most will have money to spend.

 

1.      While you will probably want to have your catalog available, the majority of your sales should be concentrated in a few “trade fair specials.” These specials should be the latest and the greatest, the newest products with the widest appeal of your product line.

2.      Your goal is to create excitement, which in turn attracts more customers and results in a “buying frenzy,” when you find yourself presenting the product to groups and selling it to many people simultaneously. When this happens, the customers will actually start telling other customers about the product and getting them ready for you to close! Don’t be surprised if one salesperson will be writing orders for three or more customers at a time during the trade-fair frenzy.

 

You will also need to do the following prior to the trade fair:

 

1.      Design an attractive booth. Clean, neat, with something to grab the attention of customers.

2.      Offer a few, well-selected specials. Two per product category is good; don’t exceed three per product category. In some categories, you may only want to offer one, if it will appeal to a wide variety of customers. Too few is better than too many. These specials should reflect a large discount, but should still be profitable. Many times manufacturers will give your company special promotional pricing for trade fairs, especially if you are introducing new products.

3.      Train all employees who will be involved in the sales process. (This should be everyone!). They need to memorize ALL the specials and what the key selling points or features are for the products on special.

4.      Come properly and appropriately dressed. The appearance of your salespeople matters! Customers judge the credibility of the salesperson by their appearance. Just as a tie and sport coat or suit would not be appropriate at a skate park, cargo pants and a ratty tee shirt don’t belong on your sales floor. Look professional, and customers will assume you are a professional.

5.      Develop a well-organized system. Are invoices numbered and readily available? Do you have clipboards for the invoices? Pens? Calculators? Will you be doing financing? How will you keep track of what is sold, who has paid, and who owes the company money?

6.      (Optional) Have a contest for your sales staff - - especially if they are not on commission. This can be broken up into hourly contests, half-days, etc.

 

IV. Other Sales Categories

 

The steps identified can be applied and adapted to all other potential sales tools. Some would include:

·        The catalog – incorporate many of the components of a successful sales presentation and website.

·        Advertisements, newsletters, and other marketing documents.

·        E-Mail communications

·        Identify potential customers

·        Assign specific personnel to follow-up contacts

·        Keep excellent records of who was contacted, when they were contacted, and what the next step should be.

 

The steps for successful sales can and should be considered when interacting with all potential customers. Have fun…take a deep breath…and remember to smile when you say that first “Hello.”

 

ASSESSMENT/EVALUATION: (See Sales Assessment and key attached)

 

CLOSURE: After a Trade Fair students in each department do a quick write and reflect on what they have learned about the sales process, trade fair preparation, and website components. Each department identifies a spokesperson that presents a brief summary to the class.

 

LESSON PLAN REFLECTION:  Teacher reflects on the lesson and makes necessary changes for the next time.


 

Name:  ______________________________

Date: ______________

 

Sales - Key

Assessment

 

1.

During the objection phase of the sales process, if the customer gives an objection then the salesperson should go back to what step?

 

a.

Presentation

 

c.

Meet and Greet

 

b.

Follow Up

 

d.

Qualifying

 

2.

Telemarketing is a form of indirect sales.

 

TRUE

FALSE

 

3.

What is the best way to close a sale through the Internet?

 

a.

Email of acceptance.

 

c.

Through the toll free number given on the site.

 

b.

An online order form.

 

d.

Customer service representatives online.

 

4.

Why is it important to use the six (6) steps of the sales process?

 

a.

The employer prefers the 6 steps because it is fast.

 

c.

Completed sales is the only thing that is important.

 

b.

If sales are done correctly, the customers will be vary satisfied and the company will be profitable.

 

d.

The customer expects all 6 steps to be practiced each time they enter a place of business.

 

5.

EDI stands for Electronic Different Information.

 

TRUE

FALSE

 

6.

Name one step you can take to insure clients receive excellent customer service.

 

a.

Have a full time customer service quality control manager.

 

c.

Hand out gifts with every purchase.

 

b.

Always have a manager present at every sale.

 

d.

Put your customer service policy in writing.

 


 

7.

During the qualifying step of the sales process is where you see if the customer needs the product.

 

TRUE

FALSE

 

8.

What four areas of customer service training do employees often get help in?

 

a.

Stress management, empathy, conflict resolution, listening.

 

c.

Stress management, dress management, listening, speaking.

 

b.

Empathy, dress management, conflict resolution, speaking.

 

d.

Conflict resolution, empathy, listening, speaking.

 

9.

What is Multi Level Marketing?

 

a.

A system of marketing which relies on telemarketers to get all sales leads.

 

c.

A system of marketing where you can be both a manager and a customer.

 

b.

A system of marketing where once you reach a certain level of sales, you can change the name of the company.

 

d.

A system of marketing which puts more emphasis upon the recruiting of distributors than on the selling of products.

 

10.

What are consignment sales?

 

a.

An arrangement where one party buys something from another party and resells the merchandise at a profit.

 

c.

An arrangement whereby merchandise owned by one party is sold by another party, usually on a commission basis.

 

b.

An arrangement between two parties where one makes the merchandise then sells the merchandise to another party at a discount.

 

d.

An arrangement of two parties where one party sells merchandise to another party who sells it to a third party.

 

11.

What is a sales quota?

 

a.

Dollar or unit sales goals set for the sales staff to achieve in a specified period of time.

 

c.

A dollar amount set for a specific item, not to exceed that amount.

 

b.

A device that counts sales at the time they are happening.

 

d.

A set dollar amount to pay salespeople whether they make a sale or not.

 


 

12.

Name two ways in which virtual sales differ from real sales.

 

a.

Limited market, No marketing team

 

c.

Limited hours of operation, Limited number of employees

 

b.

Limited face-to-face contact with customers, No physical product

 

d.

No physical product, Limited management team

 

13.

When selling at a trade fair, additional preparation is needed.  Name two things that need to be done for a trade fair.

 

a.

Dress appropriately, Have lots of light displays.

 

c.

Have trade fair specials, Develop a well organized system.

 

b.

Pick a trade fair leader, Have a contest for your sales staff.

 

d.

Make sure you have a banner, Make sure the company accountants are logging receipts.

 

14.

Selling skills can be learned.  “Natural-born” salespeople are really just excellent _____.  The skills needed to be a successful salesperson are not difficult to develop, and are refined through practice.

 

a.

con-artist

 

c.

dressers

 

b.

hand-shakers

 

d.

communicators

 

15.

List the six steps in the sales process and give a brief explanation for each one.

 

The six steps of the sales process are:

1.  Meet and Greet - The introduction, icebreaker.  Chance to build rapport with the customer.

2.  Qualify Customer - Ask questions to identify customer needs.  The who, what, when, why and how of the sales process.

3.  Presentation - This is where you demonstrate the product for the customer.

4.  Overcome Objections - Your opportunity to reinforce the benefits in the customers mind.

5.  Closing - Ask for their business.

6.  Follow Up - Once you make the sale, build a relationship for future sales or referrals.

 

 

 

 


 

Name:  ______________________________

Date: ______________

 

Sales

Assessment

 

1.

During the objection phase of the sales process, if the customer gives an objection then the salesperson should go back to what step?

 

a.

Presentation

 

c.

Meet and Greet

 

b.

Follow Up

 

d.

Qualifying

 

2.

Telemarketing is a form of indirect sales.

 

TRUE

FALSE

 

3.

What is the best way to close a sale through the Internet?

 

a.

Email of acceptance.

 

c.

Through the toll free number given on the site.

 

b.

An online order form.

 

d.

Customer service representatives online.

 

4.

Why is it important to use the six (6) steps of the sales process?

 

a.

The employer prefers the 6 steps because it is fast.

 

c.

Completed sales is the only thing that is important.

 

b.

If sales are done correctly, the customers will be vary satisfied and the company will be profitable.

 

d.

The customer expects all 6 steps to be practiced each time they enter a place of business.

 

5.

EDI stands for Electronic Different Information.

 

TRUE

FALSE

 

6.

Name one step you can take to insure clients receive excellent customer service.

 

a.

Have a full time customer service quality control manager.

 

c.

Hand out gifts with every purchase.

 

b.

Always have a manager present at every sale.

 

d.

Put your customer service policy in writing.

 


 

7.

During the qualifying step of the sales process is where you see if the customer needs the product.

 

TRUE

FALSE

 

8.

What four areas of customer service training do employees often get help in?

 

a.

Stress management, empathy, conflict resolution, listening.

 

c.

Stress management, dress management, listening, speaking.

 

b.

Empathy, dress management, conflict resolution, speaking.

 

d.

Conflict resolution, empathy, listening, speaking.

 

9.

What is Multi Level Marketing?

 

a.

A system of marketing which relies on telemarketers to get all sales leads.

 

c.

A system of marketing where you can be both a manager and a customer.

 

b.

A system of marketing where once you reach a certain level of sales, you can change the name of the company.

 

d.

A system of marketing which puts more emphasis upon the recruiting of distributors than on the selling of products.

 

10.

What are consignment sales?

 

a.

An arrangement where one party buys something from another party and resells the merchandise at a profit.

 

c.

An arrangement whereby merchandise owned by one party is sold by another party, usually on a commission basis.

 

b.

An arrangement between two parties where one makes the merchandise then sells the merchandise to another party at a discount.

 

d.

An arrangement of two parties where one party sells merchandise to another party who sells it to a third party.

 

11.

What is a sales quota?

 

a.

Dollar or unit sales goals set for the sales staff to achieve in a specified period of time.

 

c.

A dollar amount set for a specific item, not to exceed that amount.

 

b.

A device that counts sales at the time they are happening.

 

d.

A set dollar amount to pay salespeople whether they make a sale or not.

 


 

12.

Name two ways in which virtual sales differ from real sales.

 

a.

Limited market, No marketing team

 

c.

Limited hours of operation, Limited number of employees

 

b.

Limited face-to-face contact with customers, No physical product

 

d.

No physical product, Limited management team

 

13.

When selling at a trade fair, additional preparation is needed.  Name two things that need to be done for a trade fair.

 

a.

Dress appropriately, Have lots of light displays.

 

c.

Have trade fair specials, Develop a well organized system.

 

b.

Pick a trade fair leader, Have a contest for your sales staff.

 

d.

Make sure you have a banner, Make sure the company accountants are logging receipts.

 

14.

Selling skills can be learned.  “Natural-born” salespeople are really just excellent _____.  The skills needed to be a successful salesperson are not difficult to develop, and are refined through practice.

 

a.

con-artist

 

c.

dressers

 

b.

hand-shakers

 

d.

communicators

 

15.

List the six steps in the sales process and give a brief explanation for each one.

 

The six steps of the sales process are:

1.

 

2. 

 

3. 

 

4. 

 

5. 

 

6. 

 

 

 

 


 

 

Keyboarding

 Achievement Standard: Use touch keyboarding skills to enter and manipulate text and data.

 Level 1-4 - Performance Expectations:

Level 2-4 - Performance Expectations:

 

 Common Applications of Information Systems to Organizations

 Achievement Standard: Select and use word processing, desktop publishing, database, spreadsheet, presentation graphics, multimedia, and imaging software and industry- and subject-specific software.

Communications Systems and Networking

 Achievement Standard: Use, select, evaluate, install, customize plan, design, and diagnose and solve problems with communications and networking, systems.

Operating Systems, Environments, and Utilities

 Achievement Standard: Identify, select, evaluate, use, install, upgrade, customize, and diagnose and solve problems with various types of operating systems, environments, and utilities.

File and Database Management Systems

 Achievement Standard: Enter, sort, and retrieve data from databases; evaluate media and file structures; and plan, develop, and modify, file specifications and database schema.

Ethical Issues Pertaining to Information Systems

 Achievement Standard: Establish and use a personal code of ethics for information systems use and management.

Information Systems Careers

 Achievement Standard: Describe positions and career paths in information systems.

The Social and Economic Impact of Information Systems

 Achievement Standard: Assess the impact of information systems on society.

Information Systems Across the Curriculum

 Achievement Standard: Select and apply information systems across the curriculum.

Computer Application Software

 Achievement Standard: Identify, select, evaluate, use, install, upgrade, and customize application software; diagnose and solve problems occurring from an application software's installation and use.

Specific applications of English–language arts (grades eleven and twelve)

(1.1) Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of discourse (e.g., purpose,

speaker, audience, form) when completing narrative, expository, persuasive, or

descriptive writing assignments.

(1.3) Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained, persuasive, and sophisticated way

and support them with precise and relevant examples.

(1.6) Develop presentations by using clear research questions and creative and

critical research strategies (e.g., field studies, oral histories, interviews,

experiments, electronic sources).

(1.7) Use systematic strategies to organize and record information (e.g., anecdotal

scripting, annotated bibliographies).

(1.8) Integrate databases, graphics, and spreadsheets into word-processed documents.

(2.5) Write job applications and resumes:

a. Provide clear and purposeful information and address the intended audience

appropriately.

b. Use varied levels, patterns, and types of language to achieve intended

effects and aid comprehension.

c. Modify the tone to fit the purpose and audience.

d. Follow the conventional style for that type of document (e.g., resume,

memorandum) and use page formats, fonts, and spacing that contribute to

the readability and impact of the document.

(2.6) Deliver multimedia presentations:

a. Combine text, images, and sound and draw information from many sources

(e.g., television broadcasts, videos, films, newspapers, magazines, CDROMs,

the Internet, electronic media-generated images).

b. Select an appropriate medium for each element of the presentation.

c. Use the selected media skillfully, editing appropriately and monitoring for

quality.

d. Test the audience’s response and revise the presentation accordingly.

2.3 Written and Oral English Language Conventions:

Specific applications of English–language arts (grades nine and ten)

3.0 Career Planning and Management

Students acquire the skills necessary to make effective decisions, use career information, and

manage personal career plans:

3.1 Know the personal qualifications, interests, aptitudes, knowledge, and skills necessary to

succeed in careers.

3.2 Understand the scope of career opportunities and know requirements for education,

training, and licensure.

3.3 Develop a career plan that is designed to reflect career interests, pathways, and

postsecondary options.

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3.4 Understand the role and function of professional organizations, industry associations, and

organized labor in a productive society.

3.5 Understand the past, present, and future trends that affect careers, such as technological

developments and societal trends, and the resulting need for lifelong learning.

3.6 Know key strategies for self-promotion in the hiring process, such as job applications,

résumé writing, interviewing skills, and portfolio preparation.

3.7 Explore career opportunities in business through such programs as virtual enterprise,

work experience, and internship.

4.0 Technology

Students know how to use contemporary and emerging technological resources in diverse and

changing personal, community, and workplace environments:

4.1 Understand past, present, and future technological advances as they relate to a chosen

pathway.

4.2 Understand the use of technological resources to access, manipulate, and produce

information, products, and services.

4.3 Understand the influence of current and emerging technology on selected segments of the

economy.

4.4 Understand effective technologies used in Web site development and Internet usage.

4.5 Know procedures for maintaining secure information, preventing loss, and reducing risk.

5.0 Problem Solving and Critical Thinking

Students understand how to create alternative solutions by using critical and creative thinking

skills, such as logical reasoning, analytical thinking, and problem-solving techniques:

5.1 Apply appropriate problem-solving strategies and critical thinking skills to work-related

issues and tasks.

5.2 Understand the systematic problem-solving models that incorporate input, process,

outcome, and evaluation components.

5.3 Use critical thinking skills to make informed decisions and solve problems.

5.4 Understand how financial systems and tools are used to solve business problems.

10.0 Technical Knowledge and Skills

Students understand the essential knowledge and skills common to all pathways within the

Finance and Business sector:

10.1 Know cash management techniques, including bank reconciliation and cash controls.

10.2 Understand the role of managerial accounting and the use of planning and control

principles to evaluate the performance of an organization.

10.3 Know agencies that affect accounting procedures and discuss regulations and compliance

issues that influence business decisions.

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10.4 Examine and use technological services to achieve objectives and make decisions in

accounting and finance.

11.0 Demonstration and Application

Students demonstrate and apply the concepts contained in the foundation and pathway standards.

Pathway Standard

A. Accounting Services Pathway

Employees in the Accounting Services Pathway help design, install, maintain, and use general

accounting systems and prepare, analyze, and verify financial reports and related economic

information to help make important financial decisions for an organization. Accounting is an

essential aspect of every business institution and organization. Analysis of business transactions,

preparation of financial statements, and knowledge of accounting systems are critical to all

business operations. Employment of accountants and auditors is expected to grow about as fast

as the average for all occupations in the future.

A1.0 Students understand the basic principles and procedures of the accounting cycle:

A1.1 Understand the accounting cycle for service businesses and merchandise

businesses.

A1.2 Examine, analyze, and categorize financial transactions.

A1.3 Complete the accounting cycles for a service business and a merchandise

business.

A1.4 Prepare, analyze, and interpret financial statements for various business

entities.

A2.0 Students understand and apply accounting principles and concepts:

A2.1 Understand how to identify current and long-term assets and liabilities.

A2.2 Apply appropriate concepts and techniques to account for equity investments

and withdrawals for sole proprietorships, partnerships, and corporations.

A2.3 Understand the processes involved in revenue recognition and in matching

income and expenses.

A2.4 Know the procedures for the acquisition, disposition, and depreciation of fixed

assets.

A2.5 Use basic concepts of financial analysis to interpret financial statements.

A2.6 Know payroll procedures.

A3.0 Students understand governing agencies and the typical development and structure of

various business environments:

A3.1 Understand the major types of business organizations and the risks and benefits

of each.

A3.2 Understand the influence of key agencies, regulations, and issues on accounting

procedures and business decisions.

A3.3 Know the basic international terminology and theories used in accounting and

finance.

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A4.0 Students understand how basic principles of internal control systems relate to the

accounting cycle:

A4.1 Understand a variety of internal control measures.

A4.2 Know cash management techniques.

A4.3 Understand the role of managerial accounting.

A4.4 Understand how planning and control principles are used to evaluate the

performance of an organization.

B. Banking and Related Services Pathway

Students understand basic concepts pertaining to a variety of banking and related financial

services. Employees working in occupations in the Banking and Related Services Pathway

provide loans, credit, and payment services to businesses and to individuals. Knowledge of

money and banking, lending fundamentals, and banking regulations is necessary for handling

financial transactions. Employment in the banking industry is expected to increase because of the

expansion of credit unions, small regional banks, and savings institutions.

B1.0 Students understand the concepts involved in providing customer service in banking and

related services:

B1.1 Employ technical skills to perform teller functions, data processing functions,

new-account functions, and lending functions.

B1.2 Understand the nature and demands of professionalism in working relationships

with customers and employees.

B1.3 Demonstrate basic selling techniques to assist customers in making an informed

buying decision.

B1.4 Use accounting knowledge to perform bookkeeping functions.

B2.0 Students understand the key operations and management of banking and related services:

B2.1 Know basic banking concepts and terms.

B2.2 Understand techniques for managing personnel to maximize operations.

B2.3 Understand the role of organizational, time-management, and multitasking

skills.

B3.0 Students understand the regulatory compliance of banking and related services:

B3.1 Understand the role of the Federal Reserve System in the banking industry.

B3.2 Know the procedures necessary to adhere to banking regulations.

B3.3 Know internal audit procedures to ensure compliance.

B3.4 Understand the review process for bank records in preparation for examination

by an external entity.

C. Business Financial Management Pathway

Students in the Business Financial Management Pathway learn to provide investment analysis

and guidance to help businesses and individuals with their investment decisions. Students learn

that exploring, applying, and monitoring investment opportunities are necessary to take

advantage of financial opportunities throughout one’s life. Employment in the securities and

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commodities sector of the industry will continue to expand because of the increasing levels of

investment in the global marketplace and the growing need for investment advice.

C1.0 Students create and use budgets to guide financial decision making:

C1.1 Create a budget to calculate long-term projections.

C1.2 Analyze past and current budgets to determine financial business needs.

C1.3 Understand how the financial needs of a business change in a dynamic and

competitive marketplace.

C2.0 Students know how to analyze and interpret financial data:

C1.1 Use basic concepts of financial analysis to interpret financial statements.

C1.2 Analyze and interpret financial statements to compare risk and return.

C1.3 Know the differences between financial statements prepared for internal use

and those prepared for external use.

C1.4 Understand the primary ways in which various types of domestic and

international financial markets influence interest rates, trade deficits, and

unemployment.

C1.5 Determine creditworthiness on the basis of appropriate criteria and identify

alternative sources of credit.

C1.6 Analyze investment and finance options available to prepare a cost-benefit

analysis.

C2.0 Students understand the impact of federal, state, and local regulations on financial

management decisions:

C2.1 Understand the effects of tax structures on business decision making.

C2.2 Know the legal rights and responsibilities of various types of businesses.

C2.3 Analyze the ways in which current laws and regulations enforce appropriate

financial practices.

C3.0 Students understand the role of insurance products and services in successful business

management:

C3.1 Know the appropriate uses of basic types of insurance policies.

C3.2 Understand the ways in which insurance reduces risk.

Marketing, Sales, and Service Industry Sector

Model Curriculum Standards

Marketing, Sales, and Service Career Pathways

E-commerce

Entrepreneurship

International Trade

Professional Sales and Marketing

The Marketing, Sales, and Service sector is designed to align career path course work with

current and projected employment opportunities. Marketing includes the processes and functions

of transferring products or services to consumers and is a function of almost every business. It

exists within an environment of rapidly changing technology, interdependent nations and

economies, and increasing demands for ethical and social responsibility.

The four pathways in this sector—E-commerce, Entrepreneurship, International Trade, and

Professional Sales and Marketing—emphasize training to meet the growing need for marketing

professionals with skills in communication, global marketing, marketing strategies, product and

service management, promotion, and selling concepts. These pathways provide a firm foundation

for advanced education, entry to a career, and success in the global marketplace.

Foundation Standards

1.0 Academics

Students understand the academic content required for entry into postsecondary education and

employment in the Marketing, Sales, and Service sector:

(The standards listed below retain the numbering in parentheses as specified in the original

academic content standards documents.)

1.1 Mathematics:

Specific applications of Number Sense (grade seven)

(1.1) Read, write, and compare rational numbers in scientific notation (positive and

negative powers of 10) with approximate numbers using scientific notation.

(1.2) Add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers (integers, fractions, and

terminating decimals) and take positive rational numbers to whole-number

powers.

(1.3) Convert fractions to decimals and percents and use these representations in

estimations, computations, and applications.

(1.4) Differentiate between rational and irrational numbers.

(1.5) Know that every rational number is either a terminating or repeating decimal

and be able to convert terminating decimals into reduced fractions.

(1.6) Calculate the percentage of increases and decreases of a quantity.

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(1.7) Solve problems that involve discounts, markups, commissions, and profit and

compute simple and compound interest.

Specific applications of statistics, data analysis, and probability (grade seven)

(1.1) Know various forms of display for data sets, including a stem-and-leaf plot or

box-and-whisker plot; use the forms to display a single set of data or to

compare two sets of data.

(1.2) Represent two numerical variables on a scatterplot and informally describe

how the data points are distributed and any apparent relationship that exists

between the two variables (e.g., between time spent on homework and grade

level).

(1.3) Understand the meaning of, and be able to compute, the minimum, the lower

quartile, the median, the upper quartile, and the maximum of a data set.

Specific applications of Mathematical Reasoning (grade seven)

(1.1) Analyze problems by identifying relationships, distinguishing relevant from

irrelevant information, identifying missing information, sequencing and

prioritizing information, and observing patterns.

(2.1) Use estimation to verify the reasonableness of calculated results.

(2.2) Apply strategies and results from simpler problems to more complex problems.

(2.3) Estimate unknown quantities graphically and solve for them by using logical

reasoning and arithmetic and algebraic techniques.

(2.4) Make and test conjectures by using both inductive and deductive reasoning.

(2.5) Use a variety of methods, such as words, numbers, symbols, charts, graphs,

tables, diagrams, and models, to explain mathematical reasoning.

(2.6) Express the solution clearly and logically by using the appropriate

mathematical notation and terms and clear language; support solutions with

evidence in both verbal and symbolic work.

(2.7) Indicate the relative advantages of exact and approximate solutions to problems

and give answers to a specified degree of accuracy.

(2.8) Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results from the context

of the problem.

(3.1) Evaluate the reasonableness of the solution in the context of the original

situation.

(3.2) Note the method of deriving the solution and demonstrate a conceptual

understanding of the derivation by solving similar problems.

(3.3) Develop generalizations of the results obtained and the strategies used and

apply them to new problem situations.

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Specific applications of Algebra I (grades eight through twelve)

(1.1) Students use properties of numbers to demonstrate whether assertions are true

or false.

(5.0) Students solve multistep problems, including word problems, involving linear

equations and linear inequalities in one variable and provide justification for

each step.

(13.0) Students add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions and functions.

Students solve both computationally and conceptually challenging problems by

using these techniques.

(15.0) Students apply algebraic techniques to solve rate problems, work problems,

and percent mixture problems.

(24.1) Students explain the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning and

identify and provide examples of each.

(24.2) Students identify the hypothesis and conclusion in logical deduction.

(24.3) Students use counterexamples to show that an assertion is false and recognize

that a single counterexample is sufficient to refute an assertion.

(25.1) Students use properties of numbers to construct simple, valid arguments (direct

and indirect) for, or formulate counterexamples to, claimed assertions.

(25.2) Students judge the validity of an argument according to whether the properties

of the real number system and the order of operations have been applied

correctly at each step.

(25.3) Given a specific algebraic statement involving linear, quadratic, or absolute

value expressions or equations or inequalities, students determine whether the

statement is true sometimes, always, or never.

1.2 Science:

Specific applications of Investigation and Experimentation (grades nine through

twelve)

(1.a) Select and use appropriate tools and technology (such as computer-linked

probes, spreadsheets, and graphing calculators) to perform tests, collect data,

analyze relationships, and display data.

(1.d) Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.

1.3 History–Social Science:

Specific applications of World History, Culture, and Geography: The Modern World

(grade ten)

(10.3.) Students analyze the effects of the Industrial Revolution in England, France,

Germany, Japan, and the United States.

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(10.3.1) Analyze why England was the first country to industrialize.

(10.3.2) Examine how scientific and technological changes and new forms of energy

brought about massive social, economic, and cultural change (e.g., the

inventions and discoveries of James Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer, Louis

Pasteur, Thomas Edison).

(10.3.3) Describe the growth of population, rural to urban migration, and growth of

cities associated with the Industrial Revolution.

(10.3.4) Trace the evolution of work and labor, including the demise of the slave trade

and the effects of immigration, mining and manufacturing, division of labor,

and the union movement.

(10.3.5) Understand the connections among natural resources, entrepreneurship, labor,

and capital in an industrial economy.

(10.3.6) Analyze the emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic pattern and the

responses to it, including Utopianism, Social Democracy, Socialism, and

Communism.

Specific applications of United States History and Geography: Continuity and Change

in the Twentieth Century (grade eleven)

(11.11) Students analyze the major social problems and domestic policy issues in

contemporary American society.

(11.11.1) Discuss the reasons for the nation's changing immigration policy, with

emphasis on how the Immigration Act of 1965 and successor acts have

transformed American society.

(11.11.2) Discuss the significant domestic policy speeches of Truman, Eisenhower,

Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton (e.g., with regard

to education, civil rights, economic policy, environmental policy).

(11.11.3) Describe the changing roles of women in society as reflected in the entry of

more women into the labor force and the changing family structure.

(11.11.4) Explain the constitutional crisis originating from the Watergate scandal.

(11.11.5) Trace the impact of, need for, and controversies associated with environmental

conservation, expansion of the national park system, and the development of

environmental protection laws, with particular attention to the interaction

between environmental protection advocates and property rights advocates.

(11.11.6) Analyze the persistence of poverty and how different analyses of this issue

influence welfare reform, health insurance reform, and other social policies.

(11.11.7) Explain how the federal, state, and local governments have responded to

demographic and social changes such as population shifts to the suburbs, racial

concentrations in the cities, Frostbelt-to-Sunbelt migration, international

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migration, decline of family farms, increases in out-of-wedlock births, and drug

abuse.

Specific applications of Principles of Economics (grade twelve)

(12.1) Students understand common economic terms and concepts and economic

reasoning.

(12.1.1) Examine the causal relationship between scarcity and the need for choices.

(12.1.2) Explain opportunity cost and marginal benefit and marginal cost.

(12.1.3) Identify the difference between monetary and nonmonetary incentives and how

changes in incentives cause changes in behavior.

(12.1.4) Evaluate the role of private property as an incentive in conserving and

improving scarce resources, including renewable and nonrenewable natural

resources.

(12.1.5) Analyze the role of a market economy in establishing and preserving political

and personal liberty (e.g., through the works of Adam Smith).

(12.2) Students analyze the elements of America's market economy in a global

setting.

(12.2.1) Understand the relationship of the concept of incentives to the law of supply

and the relationship of the concept of incentives and substitutes to the law of

demand.

(12.2.2) Discuss the effects of changes in supply and/ or demand on the relative

scarcity, price, and quantity of particular products.

(12.2.3) Explain the roles of property rights, competition, and profit in a market

economy.

(12.2.4) Explain how prices reflect the relative scarcity of goods and services and

perform the allocative function in a market economy.

(12.2.5) Understand the process by which competition among buyers and sellers

determines a market price.

(12.2.6) Describe the effect of price controls on buyers and sellers.

(12.2.7) Analyze how domestic and international competition in a market economy

affects goods and services produced and the quality, quantity, and price of

those products.

(12.2.8) Explain the role of profit as the incentive to entrepreneurs in a market

economy.

(12.2.9) Describe the functions of the financial markets.

(12.2.10) Discuss the economic principles that guide the location of agricultural

production and industry and the spatial distribution of transportation and retail

facilities.

(12.3) Students analyze the influence of the federal government on the American

economy.

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(12.3.1) Understand how the role of government in a market economy often includes

providing for national defense, addressing environmental concerns, defining

and enforcing property rights, attempting to make markets more competitive,

and protecting consumers' rights.

(12.3.2) Identify the factors that may cause the costs of government actions to outweigh

the benefits.

(12.3.3) Describe the aims of government fiscal policies (taxation, borrowing,

spending) and their influence on production, employment, and price levels.

(12.3.4) Understand the aims and tools of monetary policy and their influence on

economic activity (e.g., the Federal Reserve).

(12.4) Students analyze the elements of the U.S. labor market in a global setting.

(12.4.1) Understand the operations of the labor market, including the circumstances

surrounding the establishment of principal American labor unions, procedures

that unions use to gain benefits for their members, the effects of unionization,

the minimum wage, and unemployment insurance.

(12.4.2) Describe the current economy and labor market, including the types of goods

and services produced, the types of skills workers need, the effects of rapid

technological change, and the impact of international competition.

(12.4.3) Discuss wage differences among jobs and professions, using the laws of

demand and supply and the concept of productivity.

(12.4.4) Explain the effects of international mobility of capital and labor on the U.S.

economy.

(12.5) Students analyze the aggregate economic behavior of the U.S. economy.

(12.5.1) Distinguish between nominal and real data.

(12.5.2) Define, calculate, and explain the significance of an unemployment rate, the

number of new jobs created monthly, an inflation or deflation rate, and a rate

of economic growth.

(12.5.3) Distinguish between short-term and long-term interest rates and explain their

relative significance.

(12.6) Students analyze issues of international trade and explain how the U.S.

economy affects, and is affected by, economic forces beyond the United States

borders.

(12.6.1) Identify the gains in consumption and production efficiency from trade, with

emphasis on the main products and changing geographic patterns of twentiethcentury

trade among countries in the Western Hemisphere.

(12.6.2) Compare the reasons for and the effects of trade restrictions during the Great

Depression compared with present-day arguments among labor, business, and

political leaders over the effects of free trade on the economic and social

interests of various groups of Americans.

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(12.6.3) Understand the changing role of international political borders and territorial

sovereignty in a global economy.

(12.6.4) Explain foreign exchange, the manner in which exchange rates are determined,

and the effects of the dollar's gaining (or losing) value relative to other

currencies.

2.0 Communications

Students understand the principles of effective oral, written, and multimedia communication in a

variety of formats and contexts:

(The standards listed below retain the numbering in parentheses as specified in the original

academic content standards documents.)

2.1 Reading:

Specific applications of English–language arts (grades nine and ten)

(2.1) Analyze the structure and format of functional workplace documents, including

the graphics and headers, and explain how authors use the features to achieve

their purposes.

(2.2) Prepare a bibliography of reference materials for a report using a variety of

consumer, workplace, and public documents.

(2.3) Generate relevant questions about readings on issues that can be researched.

(2.4) Synthesize the content from several sources or works by a single author dealing

with a single issue; paraphrase the ideas and connect them to other sources and

related topics to demonstrate comprehension.

(2.5) Extend ideas presented in primary or secondary sources through original

analysis, evaluation, and elaboration.

(2.6) Demonstrate use of sophisticated learning tools by following technical

directions (e.g., those found with graphic calculators and specialized software

programs and in access guides to World Wide Web sites on the Internet).

(2.7) Critique the logic of functional documents by examining the sequence of

information and procedures in anticipation of possible reader

misunderstandings.

Specific applications of English–language arts (grades eleven and twelve)

(2.3) Verify and clarify facts presented in other types of expository texts by using a

variety of consumer, workplace, and public documents.

2.2 Writing:

Specific applications of English–language arts (grades nine and ten)

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(1.3) Use clear research questions and suitable research methods (e.g., library,

electronic media, personal interview) to elicit and present evidence from

primary and secondary sources.

(1.4) Develop the main ideas within the body of the composition through supporting

evidence (e.g., scenarios, commonly held beliefs, hypotheses, definitions).

(1.5) Synthesize information from multiple sources and identify complexities and

discrepancies in the information and the different perspectives found in each

medium (e.g., almanacs, microfiche, news sources, in-depth field studies,

speeches, journals, technical documents).

(1.6) Integrate quotations and citations into a written text while maintaining the flow

of ideas.

(1.7) Use appropriate conventions for documentation in the text, notes, and

bibliographies by adhering to those in style manuals (e.g., Modern Language

Association Handbook, The Chicago Manual of Style).

(1.8) Design and publish documents by using advanced publishing software and

graphic programs.

(1.9) Revise writing to improve the logic and coherence of the organization and

controlling perspective, the precision of word choice, and the tone by taking

into consideration the audience, purpose, and formality of the context.

(2.3) Write expository compositions, including analytical essays and research

reports:

a. Marshal evidence in support of a thesis and related claims, including

information on all relevant perspectives.

b. Convey information and ideas from primary and secondary sources

accurately and coherently.

c. Make distinctions between the relative value and significance of specific

data, facts, and ideas.

d. Include visual aids by employing appropriate technology to organize and

record information on charts, maps, and graphs.

e. Anticipate and address readers' potential misunderstandings, biases, and

expectations.

f. Use technical terms and notations accurately.

(2.4) Write persuasive compositions:

a. Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained and logical fashion.

b. Use specific rhetorical devices to support assertions (e.g., appeal to logic

through reasoning; appeal to emotion or ethical belief; relate a personal

anecdote, case study, or analogy).

c. Clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including

facts, expert opinions, quotations, and expressions of commonly accepted

beliefs and logical reasoning.

d. Address readers’ concerns, counterclaims, biases, and expectations.

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(2.5) Write business letters:

a. Provide clear and purposeful information and address the intended audience

appropriately.

b. Use appropriate vocabulary, tone, and style to take into account the nature

of the relationship with, and the knowledge and interests of, the recipients.

c. Highlight central ideas or images.

d. Follow a conventional style with page formats, fonts, and spacing that

contribute to the documents’ readability and impact.

(2.6) Write technical documents (e.g., a manual on rules of behavior for conflict

resolution, procedures for conducting a meeting, minutes of a meeting):

a. Report information and convey ideas logically and correctly.

b. Offer detailed and accurate specifications.

c. Include scenarios, definitions, and examples to aid comprehension (e.g.,

troubleshooting guide).

d. Anticipate readers' problems, mistakes, and misunderstandings.

Specific applications of English–language arts (grades eleven and twelve)

(1.1) Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of discourse (e.g., purpose,

speaker, audience, form) when completing narrative, expository, persuasive, or

descriptive writing assignments.

(1.3) Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained, persuasive, and sophisticated way

and support them with precise and relevant examples.

(1.6) Develop presentations by using clear research questions and creative and

critical research strategies (e.g., field studies, oral histories, interviews,

experiments, electronic sources).

(1.7) Use systematic strategies to organize and record information (e.g., anecdotal

scripting, annotated bibliographies).

(1.8) Integrate databases, graphics, and spreadsheets into word-processed documents.

(2.5) Write job applications and resumes:

a. Provide clear and purposeful information and address the intended audience

appropriately.

b. Use varied levels, patterns, and types of language to achieve intended

effects and aid comprehension.

c. Modify the tone to fit the purpose and audience.

d. Follow the conventional style for that type of document (e.g., resume,

memorandum) and use page formats, fonts, and spacing that contribute to

the readability and impact of the document.

(2.6) Deliver multimedia presentations:

a. Combine text, images, and sound and draw information from many

sources (e.g., television broadcasts, videos, films, newspapers, magazines,

CD-ROMs, the Internet, electronic media-generated images).

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b. Select an appropriate medium for each element of the presentation.

c. Use the selected media skillfully, editing appropriately and monitoring for

quality.

d. Test the audience’s response and revise the presentation accordingly.

2.3 Written and Oral English Language Conventions:

Specific applications of English–language arts (grades nine and ten)

(1.1) Identify and correctly use clauses (e.g., main and subordinate), phrases (e.g.,

gerund, infinitive, and participial), and mechanics of punctuation (e.g.,

semicolons, colons, ellipses, hyphens).

(1.2) Understand sentence construction (e.g., parallel structure, subordination, proper

placement of modifiers) and proper English usage (e.g., consistency of verb

tenses).

(1.3) Demonstrate an understanding of proper English usage and control of grammar,

paragraph and sentence structure, diction, and syntax.

(1.4) Produce legible work that shows accurate spelling and correct use of the

conventions of punctuation and capitalization.

(1.5) Reflect appropriate manuscript requirements, including title page presentation,

pagination, spacing and margins, and integration of source and support material

(e.g., in-text citation, use of direct quotations, paraphrasing) with appropriate

citations.

2.4 Listening and Speaking:

Specific applications of English–language arts (grades nine and ten)

(1.1) Formulate judgments about the ideas under discussion and support those

judgments with convincing evidence.

(1.2) Compare and contrast the ways in which media genres (e.g., televised news,

news magazines, documentaries, online information) cover the same event.

(1.3) Choose logical patterns of organization (e.g., chronological, topical, cause and

effect) to inform and to persuade, by soliciting agreement or action, or to unite

audiences behind a common belief or cause.

(1.7) Use props, visual aids, graphs, and electronic media to enhance the appeal and

accuracy of

(2.3) Apply appropriate interviewing techniques:

a. Prepare and ask relevant questions.

b. Make notes of responses.

c. Use language that conveys maturity, sensitivity, and respect.

d. Respond correctly and effectively to questions.

e. Demonstrate knowledge of the subject or organization.

f. Compile and report responses.

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g. Evaluate the effectiveness of the interview.

(2.4) Deliver oral responses to literature:

a. Advance a judgment demonstrating a comprehensive grasp of the

significant ideas of works or passages (i.e., make and support warranted

assertions about the text).

b. Support important ideas and viewpoints through accurate and detailed

references to the text or to other works.

c. Demonstrate awareness of the author's use of stylistic devices and an

appreciation of the effects created.

d. Identify and assess the impact of perceived ambiguities, nuances, and

complexities within the text.

(2.5) Deliver persuasive arguments (including evaluation and analysis of problems

and solutions and causes and effects):

a. Structure ideas and arguments in a coherent, logical fashion.

b. Use rhetorical devices to support assertions (e.g., by appeal to logic through

reasoning; by appeal to emotion or ethical belief; by use of personal

anecdote, case study, or analogy).

c. Clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including

facts, expert opinions, quotations, expressions of commonly accepted

beliefs, and logical reasoning.

d. Anticipate and address the listener's concerns and counterarguments.

(2.6) Deliver descriptive presentations:

a. Establish clearly the speaker's point of view on the subject of the

presentation.

b. Establish clearly the speaker's relationship with that subject (e.g.,

dispassionate observation, personal involvement).

c. Use effective, factual descriptions of appearance, concrete images, shifting

perspectives and vantage points, and sensory details.

Specific applications of English–language arts (grades eleven and twelve)

(2.4) Deliver multimedia presentations:

a. Combine text, images, and sound by incorporating information from a wide

range of media, including films, newspapers, magazines, CD-ROMs, online

information, television, videos, and electronic media-generated images.

b. Select an appropriate medium for each element of the presentation.

c. Use the selected media skillfully, editing appropriately and monitoring for

quality.

d. Test the audience's response and revise the presentation accordingly.

2.5 Students understand written business communication modes,

such as memos, e-mail

messages, one-page executive summaries, etc.

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3.0 Career Planning and Management

Students understand how to make effective decisions, use career information, and manage

personal career plans:

3.1 Know the personal qualifications, interests, aptitudes, knowledge, and skills necessary to

succeed in careers.

3.2 Understand the scope of career opportunities and know the requirements for education,

training, and licensure.

3.3 Develop a career plan that is designed to reflect career interests, pathways, and

postsecondary options.

3.4 Understand the role and function of professional organizations, industry associations, and

organized labor in a productive society.

3.5 Understand the past, present, and future trends that affect careers, such as technological

developments and societal trends, and the resulting need for lifelong learning.

3.6 Know key strategies for self-promotion in the hiring process, such as job applications,

résumé writing, interviewing skills, and portfolio preparation.

3.7 Explore career opportunities in business through programs such as virtual enterprise,

work experience, and internships.

4.0 Technology

Students know how to use contemporary and emerging technological resources in diverse and

changing personal, community, and workplace environments:

4.1 Understand past, present, and future technological advances as they relate to a chosen

pathway.

4.2 Understand the use of technological resources to access, manipulate, and produce

information, products, and services.

4.3 Understand the influence of current and emerging technology on selected segments of the

economy.

4.4 Understand effective technologies used in Web site development and the Internet.

4.5 Know the procedures for maintaining secure information, preventing loss, and reducing

risk.

5.0 Problem Solving and Critical Thinking

Students understand how to create alternative solutions by using critical and creative thinking

skills, such as logical reasoning, analytical thinking, and problem-solving techniques:

5.1 Apply appropriate problem-solving strategies and critical thinking skills to work-related

issues and tasks.

5.2 Understand the systematic problem-solving models that incorporate input, process,

outcome, and evaluation components.

5.3 Use critical thinking skills to make informed decisions and solve problems.

5.4 Understand how financial systems and tools are used to solve business problems.

6.0 Health and Safety

Students understand health and safety policies, procedures, regulations, and practices, including

equipment and hazardous material handling:

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6.1 Know policies, procedures, and regulations regarding health and safety in the workplace,

including employers’ and employees’ responsibilities.

6.2 Understand critical elements for health and safety practices related to storing, cleaning,

and maintaining tools, equipment, and supplies.

6.3 Understand the environmental and ergonomic risks associated with the use of business

equipment and the financial impact related to an unsafe work environment.

7.0 Responsibility and Flexibility

Students know the behaviors associated with the demonstration of responsibility and flexibility

in personal, workplace, and community settings:

7.1 Understand the qualities and behaviors that constitute a positive and professional work

demeanor.

7.2 Understand the importance of accountability and responsibility in fulfilling personal,

community, and workplace roles.

7.3 Understand the need to adapt to varied roles and responsibilities.

7.4 Understand that individual actions can affect the larger community.

8.0 Ethics and Legal Responsibilities

Students understand professional, ethical, and legal behavior consistent with applicable laws,

regulations, and organizational norms:

8.1 Know major local, district, state, and federal regulatory agencies and entities that affect

industry and how they enforce laws and regulations.

8.2 Understand the concept and application of ethical and legal behavior consistent with

workplace standards.

8.3 Understand the role of personal integrity and ethical behavior in the workplace.

8.4 Understand the major local, state, and federal laws and regulations that affect business

and the procedural requirements necessary for compliance.

8.5 Know how to design systems and applications to allow access to all users, including

those with cultural, physical, and cognitive differences.

9.0 Leadership and Teamwork

Students understand effective leadership styles, key concepts of group dynamics, team and

individual decision making, the benefits of workforce diversity, and conflict resolution:

9.1 Understand the characteristics and benefits of teamwork, leadership, and citizenship in

the school, community, and workplace settings.

9.2 Understand the ways in which preprofessional associations, such as DECA—A

Marketing Association and Future Business Leaders of America (FBLA), and

competitive career development activities enhance academic skills, promote career

choices, and contribute to employability.

9.3 Understand how to organize and structure work individually and in teams for effective

performance and attainment of goals.

9.4 Know multiple approaches to conflict resolution and their appropriateness for a variety of

situations in the workplace.

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9.5 Understand how to interact with others in ways that demonstrate respect for individual

and cultural differences and for the attitudes and feelings of others.

10.0 Technical Knowledge and Skills

Students understand the essential knowledge and skills common to all pathways in the

Marketing, Sales, and Service sector:

10.1 Use the marketing information management concepts, systems, and tools needed to

obtain, evaluate, and disseminate information for use in making marketing decisions.

10.2 Understand the financial concepts used in making marketing decisions.

10.3 Know the product and service management concepts and processes needed to obtain,

develop, maintain, and improve a product or service mix in response to market

opportunities.

10.4 Know how promotion concepts and strategies, including advertising, sales promotion,

public relations, and personal selling, are used to communicate information about

products, services, images, and ideas to achieve a desired outcome.

10.5 Understand the methods used to determine client needs and desires and respond with

selling concepts, including planned, personalized communication that influences

purchase decisions and enhances future business opportunities.

10.6 Understand the distribution concepts and processes needed to move, store, locate, and

transfer ownership of goods or services.

10.7 Know the pricing concepts and strategies used to maximize return and meet customers’

perceptions of value.

11.0 Demonstration and Application

Students demonstrate and apply the concepts contained in the foundation and pathway standards.

Pathway Standards

A. E-commerce Pathway

The Internet is increasingly the element that holds the global economy together as it makes the

marketplace into an all-day, everyday event. Globalization is no longer an option but a strategic

necessity for all but the smallest of corporations. Students pursuing the E-commerce Pathway

develop an understanding of the functions, foundations, and dynamics of e-commerce as well as

the legal, ethical, and social responsibilities of the business.

A1.0 Students understand the fundamental concepts of e-commerce:

A1.1 Explain how e-commerce is similar to and different from traditional commerce,

including comparing the competitive environment of online models with

traditional business models.

A1.2 Understand the economic impact of the partnership between the Internet and

business.

A1.3 Understand the role of the Internet in expanding business options and creating

diverse marketplace opportunities.

A1.4 Analyze information gained through e-market research to make decisions about

marketing goods and services online.

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A1.5 Identify common e-market research activities and the type of information each

provides.

A1.6 Know appropriate methods of product or service delivery in an e-commerce

environment.

A2.0 Students understand the decisions an e-commerce business makes in the development of

products and services:

A2.1 Understand how e-commerce has affected traditional branding strategies.

A2.2 Know how an e-commerce Web site must label products to meet legal and

ethical business requirements.

A2.3 Understand the importance of appropriate and attractive presentation of goods

and services sold electronically.

A2.4 Know the techniques used by marketers in an online environment to position

products and services.

A2.5 Know the procedures involved in product planning for an online business.

A3.0 Students understand important promotional strategies for communicating information

about products, services, images, and ideas in an e-commerce environment:

A3.1 Understand the benefits of online communication channels, such as chat rooms,

news groups, list servs, and message boards, as they pertain to online

advertising.

A3.2 Understand the function of Internet hyperlinks and their potential usefulness to

e-business marketing strategies.

A3.3 Know the essential components of an effective e-commerce Web site.

A3.4 Know public relations strategies and techniques for online businesses.

A3.5 Know how to use keywords and register Web sites to make them easily

accessible through online searches.

A4.0 Students understand the purpose, process, and components of effective online sales and

purchasing:

A4.1 Understand what motivates consumers to buy online.

A4.2 Understand the relationship between business ethics and consumer confidence

in an e-commerce environment and its impact on the techniques used to build

customer relationships.

A4.3 Know various payment options for online purchases and their relative

advantages and disadvantages for consumers and businesses.

A4.4 Understand the methods used to provide Internet customers with product and

service knowledge.

A4.5 Know the key components of relationship marketing in an e-commerce

environment.

A5.0 Students understand the role of technology as it relates to e-commerce:

A5.1 Understand the role of e-mail in an e-commerce environment.

A5.2 Know the key components of Web hosting packages and how they fit various

business needs.

A5.3 Analyze the effectiveness of various methods available for making online

purchases and payments.

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A5.4 Know common security measures used to protect businesses and consumers

engaging in e-commerce.

A5.5 Know how various tools used in e-commerce (e.g., Web authoring programs

and database solutions) contribute to Web site effectiveness.

B. Entrepreneurship Pathway

Competition and the global economy have opened the door for many new businesses, and

entrepreneurs are becoming increasingly vital to the economy. Students with a career interest in

entrepreneurship learn skills for employment in today’s growth industries as well as skills that

are transferable to careers of the future.

B1.0 Students understand the basic aspects of entrepreneurship:

B1.1 Analyze the characteristics of successful entrepreneurs.

B1.2 Understand the different types of business ownership and the advantages and

disadvantages of owning and managing a small business.

B1.3 Apply principles and procedures of accounting and finance to the operation of a

small business.

B1.4 Know the risk management principles associated with small business

ownership.

B1.5 Formulate pricing strategies for goods and services for a small business.

B1.6 Know how the various channels of distribution and inventory control systems

are important to the marketing process of a small business.

B1.7 Know the elements of effective human resources management and how these

practices benefit small businesses.

B2.0 Students understand the elements and purpose of a business plan:

B2.1 Understand the reasons a small business develops a business plan.

B2.2 Conduct market research by using a variety of methods.

B2.3 Analyze market research to develop a marketing plan.

B2.4 Develop a financial plan that outlines sources of capital and projects income

and expenses.

B2.5 Analyze a proposed business situation and its potential market.

B3.0 Students understand how to use technology in a small business to gain a competitive

advantage:

B3.1 Know how technology and electronic media can be used to manage work flow

and provide feedback for operational efficiency.

B3.2 Know key technologies affecting small businesses and how they impact

operations.

B3.3 Understand the software technologies used to make a Web site effective for

small business needs.

B4.0 Students understand effective marketing of small businesses:

B4.1 Know the selling techniques used to aid customers and clients in making

buying decisions.

B4.2 Know the components of a promotional plan (e.g., advertising, public relations,

and sales promotion) and how the plan is used to achieve a stated outcome.

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B4.3 Understand how products and services are conceived, developed, maintained,

and improved in response to market opportunities.

B4.4 Understand how market research is used to develop strategies for marketing

products or services in a small business.

B5.0 Students understand the key economic concepts that affect small business ownership:

B5.1 Understand the role and importance of entrepreneurship and the small business

in the economy.

B5.2 Understand common ways in which fiscal and monetary policies affect the

economy (e.g., the availability of money and credit and business decisions).

B5.3 Understand the role of government in the free enterprise system and its impact

on small businesses.

B5.4 Understand the relationship between supply and demand and pricing and

production.

B5.5 Know how scarcity and allocation affect small businesses.

B5.6 Understand the importance of economic measurement and the factors used to

calculate it.

C. International Trade Pathway

The relative ease of travel and the use of electronic communication have seemingly

diminished the size of the globe. Today’s global marketplace, while growing and thriving, is also

becoming increasingly competitive. Students focusing on the occupational area of international

trade develop an understanding of the global business environment and the interconnectedness of

cultural, political, legal, historical, economic, and ethical systems.

C1.0 Students understand the fundamental concepts of international business:

C1.1 Know the measures used to evaluate the economic conditions of a country and

how economic development levels are determined.

C1.2 Know the risks associated with various methods of entering the global

marketplace.

C1.3 Understand how trade agreements and barriers affect free trade.

C1.4 Know how the technology base of various countries affects trade

C1.5 Know common financing sources and the payment methods used for

international business transactions.

C1.6 Understand the effect of imports and exports on production and manufacturing.

C2.0 Students understand how geographic, cultural, political, legal, historical, and economic

factors influence international trade:

C2.1 Understand the ways in which cultural factors affect the marketing of goods

and services.

C2.2 Understand international variations in business ethics and customs.

C2.3 Analyze how international business is impacted by climate, distance, time

zones, and topography.

C2.4 Understand the impact of organized labor on international business.

C2.5 Understand the ways in which a country’s natural, financial, and human

resources influence international business.

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C2.6 Analyze factors that affect currency and exchange rates.

C2.7 Know how laws and regulations influence international trade.

C3.0 Students understand the role of information technology in modern global trade:

C3.1 Understand how technology is used to buy and sell products and services

online.

C3.2 Know various methods used to promote a product or service online in the

global marketplace.

C3.3 Use technology to research international trade opportunities.

C3.4 Analyze security measures used to protect businesses and consumers engaging

in international e-commerce.

C4.0 Students understand the logistics of importing and exporting products and services:

C4.1 Explain direct and indirect distribution channels by identifying various

distribution intermediaries and discussing their functions in international trade.

C4.2 Explain how products are prepared for international distribution, including

packing and documentation.

C4.3 Know the most appropriate methods of transporting various products

internationally.

D. Professional Sales and Marketing Pathway

Employees in professional sales and marketing are involved in the transfer of goods and

services in the economy, both to businesses and to individual consumers. Sales positions in all

sectors account for more than eight million jobs and are expected to grow. The increased use of

technology in sales positions has resulted in increased responsibilities for members of the sales

staff. Students focusing on this competitive career path develop an understanding of the sales

process, sales management, and marketing information management.

D1.0 Students understand the key concepts of professional sales and marketing:

D1.1 Know the characteristics of a successful salesperson.

D1.2 Understand how various types of selling are applied in wholesale and retail

environments.

D1.3 Know the steps of the selling process.

D1.4 Know the techniques used by salespeople to enhance selling potential and

increase customer satisfaction.

D1.5 Understand the impact of a salesperson’s knowledge of the product and its

effect on potential sales.

D1.6 Understand buying motives and the customer’s decision-making process.

D2.0 Students understand the theories and basic functions of sales management:

D2.1 Understand the utility of strategic planning (including setting goals and

planning activities) in guiding a sales force.

D2.2 Know methods of motivating and evaluating sales staff.

D2.3 Know various approaches for organizing and leading a sales force to maximize

effectiveness.

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D2.4 Understand the importance of tracking sales figures and preparing sales reports

to guide sales force activities.

D3.0 Students understand how to access and use marketing information to enhance sales

opportunities and activities:

D3.1 Analyze and use data for identifying potential customers and clients.

D3.2 Track trends and analyze data to forecast sales, predict economic conditions,

and guide business activities.

D3.3 Research consumers’ needs and wants to develop, maintain, and improve a

product or service.

D3.4 Use sales information to guide business activities.

Information Technology Industry Sector

Model Curriculum Standards

Information Technology Career Pathways

Information Support and Services

Media Support and Services

Network Communications

Programming and Systems Development

Technology and the growing complexity of businesses have expanded the need for employees

who can analyze, design, and manage information. Skills for evaluating data, the ability to work

with people, and clear communication are companion components for careers in information

technology systems. Employment opportunities for technically and professionally trained

persons are outstanding in this emerging career path. After mastering basic technology skills,

students can select one of many specializations in the field of technology.

Foundation Standards

1.0 Academics

Students understand the academic content required for entry into postsecondary education and

employment in the Information Technology sector:

(The standards listed below retain the numbering in parentheses as specified in the original

academic content standards documents.)

1.1 Mathematics:

Specific applications of Number Sense (grade seven)

(1.1) Read, write, and compare rational numbers in scientific notation (positive and

negative powers of 10) with approximate numbers using scientific notation.

(1.2) Add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational numbers (integers, fractions, and

terminating decimals) and take positive rational numbers to whole-number

powers.

(1.3) Convert fractions to decimals and percents and use these representations in

estimations, computations, and applications.

(1.4) Differentiate between rational and irrational numbers.

(1.5) Know that every rational number is either a terminating or repeating decimal

and be able to convert terminating decimals into reduced fractions.

(1.6) Calculate the percentage of increases and decreases of a quantity.

(1.7) Solve problems that involve discounts, markups, commissions, and profit and

compute simple and compound interest.

Specific applications of Statistics, Data Analysis, and Probability (grade seven)

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(1.1) Know various forms of display for data sets, including a stem-and-leaf plot or

box-and-whisker plot; use the forms to display a single set of data or to

compare two sets of data.

(1.2) Represent two numerical variables on a scatterplot and informally describe how

the data points are distributed and any apparent relationship that exists between

the two variables (e.g., between time spent on homework and grade level).

(1.3) Understand the meaning of, and be able to compute, the minimum, the lower

quartile, the median, the upper quartile, and the maximum of a data set.

Specific applications of Mathematical Reasoning (grade seven)

(1.1) Analyze problems by identifying relationships, distinguishing relevant from

irrelevant information, identifying missing information, sequencing and

prioritizing information, and observing patterns.

(2.1) Use estimation to verify the reasonableness of calculated results.

(2.2) Apply strategies and results from simpler problems to more complex problems.

(2.3) Estimate unknown quantities graphically and solve for them by using logical

reasoning and arithmetic and algebraic techniques.

(2.4) Make and test conjectures by using both inductive and deductive reasoning.

(2.5) Use a variety of methods, such as words, numbers, symbols, charts, graphs,

tables, diagrams, and models, to explain mathematical reasoning.

(2.6) Express the solution clearly and logically by using the appropriate

mathematical notation and terms and clear language; support solutions with

evidence in both verbal and symbolic work.

(2.7) Indicate the relative advantages of exact and approximate solutions to problems

and give answers to a specified degree of accuracy.

(2.8) Make precise calculations and check the validity of the results from the context

of the problem.

(3.1) Evaluate the reasonableness of the solution in the context of the original

situation.

(3.2) Note the method of deriving the solution and demonstrate a conceptual

understanding of the derivation by solving similar problems.

(3.3) Develop generalizations of the results obtained and the strategies used and

apply them to new problem situations.

Specific applications of Algebra I (grades eight through twelve)

(1.1) Students use properties of numbers to demonstrate whether assertions are true

or false.

(5.0) Students solve multistep problems, including word problems, involving linear

equations and linear inequalities in one variable and provide justification for

each step.

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(13.0) Students add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions and functions.

Students solve both computationally and conceptually challenging problems by

using these techniques.

(15.0) Students apply algebraic techniques to solve rate problems, work problems, and

percent mixture problems.

(24.1) Students explain the difference between inductive and deductive reasoning and

identify and provide examples of each.

(24.2) Students identify the hypothesis and conclusion in logical deduction.

(24.3) Students use counterexamples to show that an assertion is false and recognize

that a single counterexample is sufficient to refute an assertion.

(25.1) Students use properties of numbers to construct simple, valid arguments (direct

and indirect) for, or formulate counterexamples to, claimed assertions.

(25.2) Students judge the validity of an argument according to whether the properties

of the real number system and the order of operations have been applied

correctly at each step.

(25.3) Given a specific algebraic statement involving linear, quadratic, or absolute

value expressions or equations or inequalities, students determine whether the

statement is true sometimes, always, or never.

1.2 Science:

Specific applications of Investigation and Experimentation (grades nine through twelve)

(1.a) Select and use appropriate tools and technology (such as computer-linked

probes, spreadsheets, and graphing calculators) to perform tests, collect data,

analyze relationships, and display data.

(1.d) Formulate explanations by using logic and evidence.

1.3 History–Social Science:

Specific applications of World History, Culture and Geography: The Modern World

(grade ten)

(10.3) Students analyze the effects of the Industrial Revolution in England, France,

Germany, Japan, and the United States.

(10.3.1) Analyze why England was the first country to industrialize.

(10.3.2) Examine how scientific and technological changes and new forms of energy

brought about massive social, economic, and cultural change (e.g., the

inventions and discoveries of James Watt, Eli Whitney, Henry Bessemer, Louis

Pasteur, Thomas Edison).

(10.3.3) Describe the growth of population, rural to urban migration, and growth of

cities associated with the Industrial Revolution.

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(10.3.4) Trace the evolution of work and labor, including the demise of the slave trade

and the effects of immigration, mining and manufacturing, division of labor,

and the union movement.

(10.3.5) Understand the connections among natural resources, entrepreneurship, labor,

and capital in an industrial economy.

(10.3.6) Analyze the emergence of capitalism as a dominant economic pattern and the

responses to it, including Utopianism, Social Democracy, Socialism, and

Communism.

Specific application of United States History and Geography: Continuity and Change in

the Twentieth Century (grade eleven)

(11.11) Students analyze the major social problems and domestic policy issues in

contemporary American society.

(11.11.1) Discuss the reasons for the nation's changing immigration policy, with

emphasis on how the Immigration Act of 1965 and successor acts have

transformed American society.

(11.11.2) Discuss the significant domestic policy speeches of Truman, Eisenhower,

Kennedy, Johnson, Nixon, Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton (e.g., with regard

to education, civil rights, economic policy, environmental policy).

(11.11.3) Describe the changing roles of women in society as reflected in the entry of

more women into the labor force and the changing family structure.

(11.11.4) Explain the constitutional crisis originating from the Watergate scandal.

(11.11.5) Trace the impact of, need for, and controversies associated with environmental

conservation, expansion of the national park system, and the development of

environmental protection laws, with particular attention to the interaction

between environmental protection advocates and property rights advocates.

(11.11.6) Analyze the persistence of poverty and how different analyses of this issue

influence welfare reform, health insurance reform, and other social policies.

(11.11.7) Explain how the federal, state, and local governments have responded to

demographic and social changes such as population shifts to the suburbs, racial

concentrations in the cities, Frostbelt-to-Sunbelt migration, international

migration, decline of family farms, increases in out-of-wedlock births, and drug

abuse.

Specific application of Principles of Economics (grade twelve)

(12.1) Students understand common economic terms and concepts and economic

reasoning.

(12.1.1) Examine the causal relationship between scarcity and the need for choices.

(12.1.2) Explain opportunity cost and marginal benefit and marginal cost.

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(12.1.3) Identify the difference between monetary and nonmonetary incentives and how

changes in incentives cause changes in behavior.

(12.1.4) Evaluate the role of private property as an incentive in conserving and

improving scarce resources, including renewable and nonrenewable natural

resources.

(12.1.5) Analyze the role of a market economy in establishing and preserving political

and personal liberty (e.g., through the works of Adam Smith).

(12.2) Students analyze the elements of America's market economy in a global setting.

(12.2.1) Understand the relationship of the concept of incentives to the law of supply

and the relationship of the concept of incentives and substitutes to the law of

demand.

(12.2.2) Discuss the effects of changes in supply and/ or demand on the relative

scarcity, price, and quantity of particular products.

(12.2.3) Explain the roles of property rights, competition, and profit in a market

economy.

(12.2.4) Explain how prices reflect the relative scarcity of goods and services and

perform the allocative function in a market economy.

(12.2.5) Understand the process by which competition among buyers and sellers

determines a market price.

(12.2.6) Describe the effect of price controls on buyers and sellers.

(12.2.7) Analyze how domestic and international competition in a market economy

affects goods and services produced and the quality, quantity, and price of

those products.

(12.2.8) Explain the role of profit as the incentive to entrepreneurs in a market

economy.

(12.2.9) Describe the functions of the financial markets.

(12.2.10) Discuss the economic principles that guide the location of agricultural

production and industry and the spatial distribution of transportation and retail

facilities.

(12.3) Students analyze the influence of the federal government on the American

economy.

(12.3.1) Understand how the role of government in a market economy often includes

providing for national defense, addressing environmental concerns, defining

and enforcing property rights, attempting to make markets more competitive,

and protecting consumers' rights.

(12.3.2) Identify the factors that may cause the costs of government actions to outweigh

the benefits.

(12.3.3) Describe the aims of government fiscal policies (taxation, borrowing, spending)

and their influence on production, employment, and price levels.

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(12.3.4) Understand the aims and tools of monetary policy and their influence on

economic activity (e.g., the Federal Reserve).

(12.4) Students analyze the elements of the U.S. labor market in a global setting.

(12.4.1) Understand the operations of the labor market, including the circumstances

surrounding the establishment of principal American labor unions, procedures

that unions use to gain benefits for their members, the effects of unionization,

the mini-mum wage, and unemployment insurance.

(12.4.2) Describe the current economy and labor market, including the types of goods

and services produced, the types of skills workers need, the effects of rapid

technological change, and the impact of international competition.

(12.4.3) Discuss wage differences among jobs and professions, using the laws of

demand and supply and the concept of productivity.

(12.4.4) Explain the effects of international mobility of capital and labor on the U.S.

economy.

(12.5) Students analyze the aggregate economic behavior of the U.S. economy.

(12.5.1) Distinguish between nominal and real data.

(12.5.2) Define, calculate, and explain the significance of an unemployment rate, the

number of new jobs created monthly, an inflation or deflation rate, and a rate of

economic growth.

(12.5.3) Distinguish between short-term and long-term interest rates and explain their

relative significance.

(12.6) Students analyze issues of international trade and explain how the U.S.

economy affects, and is affected by, economic forces beyond the United States

borders.

(12.6.1) Identify the gains in consumption and production efficiency from trade, with

emphasis on the main products and changing geographic patterns of twentiethcentury

trade among countries in the Western Hemisphere.

(12.6.2) Compare the reasons for and the effects of trade restrictions during the Great

Depression compared with present-day arguments among labor, business, and

political leaders over the effects of free trade on the economic and social

interests of various groups of Americans.

(12.6.3) Understand the changing role of international political borders and territorial

sovereignty in a global economy.

(12.6.4) Explain foreign exchange, the manner in which exchange rates are determined,

and the effects of the dollar's gaining (or losing) value relative to other

currencies.

2.0 Communications

Students understand the principles of effective oral, written, and multimedia communication in a

variety of formats and contexts:

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(The standards listed below retain the numbering in parentheses as specified in the original

academic content standards documents.)

2.1 Reading:

Specific applications of English–language arts (grades nine and ten)

(2.1) Analyze the structure and format of functional workplace documents, including

the graphics and headers, and explain how authors use the features to achieve

their purposes.

(2.2) Prepare a bibliography of reference materials for a report using a variety of

consumer, workplace, and public documents.

(2.3) Generate relevant questions about readings on issues that can be researched.

(2.4) Synthesize the content from several sources or works by a single author dealing

with a single issue; paraphrase the ideas and connect them to other sources and

related topics to demonstrate comprehension.

(2.5) Extend ideas presented in primary or secondary sources through original

analysis, evaluation, and elaboration.

(2.6) Demonstrate use of sophisticated learning tools by following technical

directions (e.g., those found with graphic calculators and specialized software

programs and in access guides to World Wide Web sites on the Internet).

(2.7) Critique the logic of functional documents by examining the sequence of

information and procedures in anticipation of possible reader

misunderstandings.

Specific applications of English–language arts (grades eleven and twelve)

(2.3) Verify and clarify facts presented in other types of expository texts by using a

variety of consumer, workplace, and public documents.

2.2 Writing:

Specific applications of English–language arts (grades nine and ten)

(1.3) Use clear research questions and suitable research methods (e.g., library,

electronic media, personal interview) to elicit and present evidence from

primary and secondary sources.

(1.4) Develop the main ideas within the body of the composition through supporting

evidence (e.g., scenarios, commonly held beliefs, hypotheses, definitions).

(1.5) Synthesize information from multiple sources and identify complexities and

discrepancies in the information and the different perspectives found in each

medium (e.g., almanacs, microfiche, news sources, in-depth field studies,

speeches, journals, technical documents).

(1.6) Integrate quotations and citations into a written text while maintaining the flow

of ideas.

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(1.7) Use appropriate conventions for documentation in the text, notes, and

bibliographies by adhering to those in style manuals (e.g., Modern Language

Association Handbook, The Chicago Manual of Style).

(1.8) Design and publish documents by using advanced publishing software and

graphic programs.

(1.9) Revise writing to improve the logic and coherence of the organization and

controlling perspective, the precision of word choice, and the tone by taking

into consideration the audience, purpose, and formality of the context.

(2.3) Write expository compositions, including analytical essays and research

reports:

a. Marshal evidence in support of a thesis and related claims, including

information on all relevant perspectives.

b. Convey information and ideas from primary and secondary sources

accurately and coherently.

c. Make distinctions between the relative value and significance of specific

data, facts, and ideas.

d. Include visual aids by employing appropriate technology to organize and

record information on charts, maps, and graphs.

e. Anticipate and address readers' potential misunderstandings, biases, and

expectations.

f. Use technical terms and notations accurately.

(2.4) Write persuasive compositions:

a. Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained and logical fashion.

b. Use specific rhetorical devices to support assertions (e.g., appeal to logic

through reasoning; appeal to emotion or ethical belief; relate a personal

anecdote, case study, or analogy).

c. Clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including

facts, expert opinions, quotations, and expressions of commonly accepted

beliefs and logical reasoning.

d. Address readers’ concerns, counterclaims, biases, and expectations.

(2.5) Write business letters:

a. Provide clear and purposeful information and address the intended audience

appropriately.

b. Use appropriate vocabulary, tone, and style to take into account the nature

of the relationship with, and the knowledge and interests of, the recipients.

c. Highlight central ideas or images.

d. Follow a conventional style with page formats, fonts, and spacing that

contribute to the documents' readability and impact.

(2.6) Write technical documents (e.g., a manual on rules of behavior for conflict

resolution, procedures for conducting a meeting, minutes of a meeting):

a. Report information and convey ideas logically and correctly.

b. Offer detailed and accurate specifications.

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c. Include scenarios, definitions, and examples to aid comprehension (e.g.,

troubleshooting guide).

d. Anticipate readers' problems, mistakes, and misunderstandings.

Specific applications of English–language arts (grades eleven and twelve)

(1.1) Demonstrate an understanding of the elements of discourse (e.g., purpose,

speaker, audience, form) when completing narrative, expository, persuasive, or

descriptive writing assignments.

(1.3) Structure ideas and arguments in a sustained, persuasive, and sophisticated way

and support them with precise and relevant examples.

(1.6) Develop presentations by using clear research questions and creative and

critical research strategies (e.g., field studies, oral histories, interviews,

experiments, electronic sources).

(1.7) Use systematic strategies to organize and record information (e.g., anecdotal

scripting, annotated bibliographies).

(1.8) Integrate databases, graphics, and spreadsheets into word-processed documents.

(2.5) Write job applications and resumes:

a. Provide clear and purposeful information and address the intended audience

appropriately.

b. Use varied levels, patterns, and types of language to achieve intended

effects and aid comprehension.

c. Modify the tone to fit the purpose and audience.

d. Follow the conventional style for that type of document (e.g., resume,

memorandum) and use page formats, fonts, and spacing that contribute to

the readability and impact of the document.

(2.6) Deliver multimedia presentations:

a. Combine text, images, and sound and draw information from many

sources (e.g., television broadcasts, videos, films, newspapers, magazines,

CD-ROMs, the Internet, electronic media-generated images).

b. Select an appropriate medium for each element of the presentation.

c. Use the selected media skillfully, editing appropriately and monitoring for

quality.

d. Test the audience's response and revise the presentation accordingly.

2.3 Written and Oral English Language Conventions:

Specific applications of English–language arts (grades nine and ten)

(1.1) Identify and correctly use clauses (e.g., main and subordinate), phrases (e.g.,

gerund, infinitive, and participial), and mechanics of punctuation (e.g.,

semicolons, colons, ellipses, hyphens).

(1.2) Understand sentence construction (e.g., parallel structure, subordination, proper

placement of modifiers) and proper English usage (e.g., consistency of verb

tenses).

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(1.3) Demonstrate an understanding of proper English usage and control of grammar,

paragraph and sentence structure, diction, and syntax.

(1.4) Produce legible work that shows accurate spelling and correct use of the

conventions of punctuation and capitalization.

(1.5) Reflect appropriate manuscript requirements, including title page presentation,

pagination, spacing and margins, and integration of source and support material

(e.g., in-text citation, use of direct quotations, paraphrasing) with appropriate

citations.

2.4 Listening and Speaking:

Specific applications of English–language arts (grade nine and ten)

(1.1) Formulate judgments about the ideas under discussion and support those

judgments with convincing evidence.

(1.2) Compare and contrast the ways in which media genres (e.g., televised news,

news magazines, documentaries, online information) cover the same event.

(1.3) Choose logical patterns of organization (e.g., chronological, topical, cause and

effect) to inform and to persuade, by soliciting agreement or action, or to unite

audiences behind a common belief or cause.

(1.7) Use props, visual aids, graphs, and electronic media to enhance the appeal and

accuracy of presentations.

(2.3) Apply appropriate interviewing techniques:

a. Prepare and ask relevant questions.

b. Make notes of responses.

c. Use language that conveys maturity, sensitivity, and respect.

d. Respond correctly and effectively to questions.

e. Demonstrate knowledge of the subject or organization.

f. Compile and report responses.

g. Evaluate the effectiveness of the interview.

(2.4) Deliver oral responses to literature:

a. Advance a judgment demonstrating a comprehensive grasp of the

significant ideas of works or passages (i.e., make and support warranted

assertions about the text).

b. Support important ideas and viewpoints through accurate and detailed

references to the text or to other works.

c. Demonstrate awareness of the author's use of stylistic devices and an

appreciation of the effects created.

d. Identify and assess the impact of perceived ambiguities, nuances, and

complexities within the text.

(2.5) Deliver persuasive arguments (including evaluation and analysis of problems

and solutions and causes and effects):

a. Structure ideas and arguments in a coherent, logical fashion.

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b. Use rhetorical devices to support assertions (e.g., by appeal to logic through

reasoning; by appeal to emotion or ethical belief; by use of personal

anecdote, case study, or analogy).

c. Clarify and defend positions with precise and relevant evidence, including

facts, expert opinions, quotations, expressions of commonly accepted

beliefs, and logical reasoning.

d. Anticipate and address the listener's concerns and counterarguments.

(2.6) Deliver descriptive presentations:

a. Establish clearly the speaker's point of view on the subject of the

presentation.

b. Establish clearly the speaker's relationship with that subject (e.g.,

dispassionate observation, personal involvement).

c. Use effective, factual descriptions of appearance, concrete images, shifting

perspectives and vantage points, and sensory details.

Specific applications of English–language arts (grades eleven and twelve)

(2.4) Deliver multimedia presentations:

a. Combine text, images, and sound by incorporating information from a wide

range of media, including films, newspapers, magazines, CD-ROMs, online

information, television, videos, and electronic media-generated images.

b. Select an appropriate medium for each element of the presentation.

c. Use the selected media skillfully, editing appropriately and monitoring for

quality.

d. Test the audience's response and revise the presentation accordingly.

2.4 Students understand written business communication modes, such as memos, e-mail

messages, one-page executive summaries, etc.

3.0 Career Planning and Management

Students understand how to make effective decisions, use information about careers, and manage

personal career plans:

3.1 Know the personal qualifications, interests, aptitudes, knowledge, and skills necessary to

succeed in careers.

3.2 Understand the scope of career opportunities and know the requirements for education,

training, and licensure.

3.3 Develop a career plan that is designed to reflect career interests, pathways, and

postsecondary options.

3.4 Understand the role and function of professional organizations, industry associations, and

organized labor in a productive society.

3.5 Understand the past, present, and future trends that affect careers, such as technological

developments and societal trends, and the resulting need for lifelong learning.

3.6 Know key strategies for self-promotion in the hiring process, such as job applications,

résumé writing, interviewing skills, and portfolio preparation.

3.7 Explore career opportunities in business through such programs as virtual enterprise,

work experience, and internships.

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4.0 Technology

Students know how to use contemporary and emerging technological resources in diverse and

changing personal, community, and workplace environments:

4.1 Understand past, present, and future technological advances as they relate to a chosen

pathway.

4.2 Understand the use of technological resources to access, manipulate, and produce

information, products, and services.

4.3 Understand the influence of current and emerging technology on selected segments of the

economy.

4.4 Understand effective technologies used in Web site development and Internet usage.

4.5 Know procedures for maintaining secure information, preventing loss, and reducing risk.

5.0 Problem Solving and Critical Thinking

Students understand how to create alternative solutions by using critical and creative thinking

skills, such as logical reasoning, analytical thinking, and problem solving techniques:

5.1 Apply appropriate problem-solving strategies and critical thinking skills to work-related

issues and tasks.

5.2 Understand the systematic problem-solving models that incorporate input, process,

outcome, and evaluation components.

5.3 Use critical thinking skills to make informed decisions and solve problems.

5.4 Understand how financial systems and tools are used to solve business problems.

6.0 Health and Safety

Students understand health and safety policies, procedures, regulations, and practices, including

equipment and hazardous material handling:

6.1 Know policies, procedures, and regulations regarding health and safety in the workplace,

including employers’ and employees’ responsibilities.

6.2 Understand critical elements for health and safety practices related to storing, cleaning,

and maintaining tools, equipment, and supplies.

6.3 Understand the environmental and ergonomic risks associated with the use of business

equipment and the financial impact of an unsafe work environment.

7.0 Responsibility and Flexibility

Students know the behaviors associated with the demonstration of responsibility and flexibility

in personal, workplace, and community settings:

7.1 Understand the qualities and behaviors that constitute a positive and professional work

demeanor.

7.2 Understand the importance of accountability and responsibility in fulfilling personal,

community, and workplace roles.

7.3 Understand the need to adapt to varied roles and responsibilities.

7.4 Understand that individual actions can affect the larger community.

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8.0 Ethics and Legal Responsibilities

Students understand professional, ethical, and legal behavior consistent with applicable laws,

regulations, and organizational norms:

8.1 Know major local, district, state, and federal regulatory agencies and entities that affect

industry and how they enforce laws and regulations.

8.2 Understand the concept and application of ethical and legal behavior consistent with

workplace standards.

8.3 Understand the role of personal integrity and ethical behavior in the workplace.

8.4 Understand major local, state, and federal laws and regulations that affect business as

well as the procedural requirements necessary for compliance.

8.5 Know how to design systems and applications to allow access to all users.

9.0 Leadership and Teamwork

Students understand effective leadership styles, key concepts of group dynamics, team and

individual decision making, the benefits of workforce diversity, and conflict resolution:

9.1 Understand the characteristics and benefits of teamwork, leadership, and citizenship in

the school, community, and workplace settings.

9.2 Understand the ways in which preprofessional associations, such as DECA—A

Marketing Association and Future Business Leaders of America (FBLA), and

competitive career development activities enhance academic skills, promote career

choices, and contribute to employability.

9.3 Understand how to organize and structure work individually and in teams for effective

performance and attainment of goals.

9.4 Know multiple approaches to conflict resolution and their appropriateness for a variety of

situations in the workplace.

9.5 Understand how to interact with others in ways that demonstrate respect for individual

and cultural differences and the attitudes and feelings of others.

10.0 Technical Knowledge and Skills

Students understand the essential knowledge and skills common to all pathways within the

Information Technology sector:

10.1 Know how to use a variety of business- and industry-standard software and hardware,

including major proprietary and open standards.

10.2 Understand the information technology components of major business functions (e.g.,

marketing, accounting, and human resource management) and their interrelationships.

10.3 Understand the economic effects of technology on a business in the global marketplace.

10.4 Know how financial systems and tools are used to perform business transactions through

the use of technology.

10.5 Use technology and electronic media to manage the work flow and to provide feedback.

10.6 Understand the interrelationships between hardware components and supportive

software.

10.7 Analyze the functions, features, and limitations of different operating systems,

environments, applications, and utilities.

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10.8 Know how to use appropriate help resources (e.g., help desks, online help, and manuals)

to install, configure, upgrade, diagnose, and repair operating systems, environments,

applications, and utilities.

11.0 Demonstration and Application

Students demonstrate and apply the concepts contained in the foundation and pathway standards.

Pathway Standards

A. Information Support and Services Pathway

Students in the Information Support and Services Pathway prepare for careers that involve the

implementation of computer services and software, the provision of technical assistance, and the

creation of technical documentation and management of information systems. Mastery of

information technologies is the foundation for all successful business organizations today.

Persons with expertise in information support and services are in high demand for a variety of

positions in business and industry.

A1.0 Students understand the potential impact of information systems in different

organizations:

A1.1 Evaluate the systems-development life cycle and develop appropriate plans to

maintain a given system after assessing its impact on resources.

A1.2 Evaluate support needs for different data and systems configurations.

A1.3 Understand the necessity of and procedures for communicating and

documenting technical support provided.

A2.0 Students understand the process of systems implementation:

A2.1 Understand how to develop the purpose and scope of a systems project.

A2.2 Understand the criteria and processes for evaluating the functions of

information systems.

A2.3 Know the processes needed to install and maintain systems.

A2.4 Know appropriate documentation support for information systems.

A3.0 Students understand key aspects of project management:

A3.1 Analyze business problems by using functional and cost-benefit perspectives.

A3.2 Know common organizational, technical, and financial risks associated with the

implementation and use of systems.

A3.3 Know the functions of various tools used to manage projects involving the

development of information systems.

A4.0 Students understand the process necessary to accomplish a task by using effective

resource management:

A4.1 Know how to acquire, use, and manage both internal and external resources

needed when supporting various organizational systems.

A4.2 Understand how to identify and integrate various organizational systems to

achieve maximum efficiency and effectiveness.

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A5.0 Students understand the dynamics of systems management and control:

A5.1 Know appropriate policies and procedures to ensure the security and integrity

of management systems.

A5.2 Investigate, evaluate, select, and use major types of systems applications and

vendors, including retail, manufacturing, and service management.

A6.0 Students understand how training and support ensure efficient, productive systems

operations:

A6.1 Analyze technical support needs.

A6.2 Use technical writing and communication skills to work effectively with

diverse groups of people.

A6.3 Understand the principles of a customer-oriented service approach to users.

A7.0 Students understand software applications and life-cycle phases:

A7.1 Know common industry-standard software and its applications.

A7.2 Evaluate the effectiveness of software to solve specific problems.

A7.3 Know a variety of sources for reference materials (e.g., online help, vendors’

Web sites, online discussion groups, tutorials, and manuals).

A7.4 Diagnose and solve software application problems.

A7.5 Know current and emerging industry-standard technology and trends.

A8.0 Students understand the importance of reading, writing, and comprehending

documentation in a technical environment:

A8.1 Know appropriate search procedures for different types of information, sources,

and queries.

A8.2 Evaluate the accuracy, relevance, and comprehensiveness of retrieved

information.

A8.3 Analyze the effectiveness of online information resources to support

collaborative tasks, research, publications, communications, and increased

productivity.

A9.0 Students understand and implement quality assurance processes:

A9.1 Know the characteristics and functions of available quality assurance tools and

procedures for a variety of situations.

A9.2 Understand techniques for optimizing quality assurance processes.

A10.0 Students understand and implement database management systems:

A10.1 Know the variety of data types that are stored in database management systems.

A10.2 Understand the ways in which tools for developing applications can be used to

create information systems.

A10.3 Understand the various structures appropriate for specific applications within

database management systems.

A10.4 Understand the development process of database schema.

A10.5 Understand the possibilities for and limitations of converting data between

databases and various applications.

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B. Media Support and Services Pathway

Students in the Media Support and Services Pathway prepare for careers that involve creating,

designing, and producing multimedia products and services, including the development of

digitally generated or computer-enhanced media used in business. Organizations of all types and

sizes use digital media (e.g., CDs, DVDs, Web sites) to communicate with existing and potential

customers. Media support experts can find jobs in organizations doing such work as creating

e-business Web sites.

B1.0 Students understand the effective use of tools for media production, development, and

project management:

B1.1 Know the basic functions of media design software, such as keyframe

animation, two-dimensional design, and three-dimensional design.

B1.2 Use appropriate software to design and produce professional-quality images,

documents, and presentations.

B1.3 Analyze the purpose of the media to determine the appropriate file format and

level of compression.

B1.4 Analyze media and develop strategies that target the specific needs and desires

of the audience.

B1.5 Understand the development and management process of a show (e.g.,

television programs, musicals, and radio programs).

B1.6 Know the basic design elements necessary to produce effective print, video,

audio, and Web-based media.

B1.7 Use technical skills (e.g., pagination, printing, folding, cutting, and binding) to

produce publishable materials.

B2.0 Students understand the effective use of communication software to access and transmit

information:

B2.1 Know multiple ways in which to transfer information and resources (e.g., text,

data, sound, video, and still images) between software programs and systems.

B2.2 Understand the differences between various Internet protocols (e.g., http, ftp,

mailto, and telnet).

B2.3 Use multiple online search techniques and resources to acquire information.

B2.4 Know the appropriate ways to validate and cite Internet resources.

B3.0 Students understand the use of different types of peripherals and hardware appropriate to

media and technology:

B3.1 Understand the appropriate peripherals and hardware needed to achieve

maximum productivity for various projects.

B3.2 Know how to identify and integrate various types of peripherals and hardware

to meet project requirements.

B3.3 Use various types of audio and video equipment (e.g., digital cameras,

recorders, scanners, Web cams, and CD and DVD recorders), as appropriate,

for different projects.

B3.4 Understand the types of media storage and the use of appropriate file formats,

and know how to convert data between media and file formats.

B4.0 Students apply technical and interpersonal skills and knowledge to support the user:

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B4.1 Use a logical and structured approach to isolate and identify problem sources

and to resolve problems.

B4.2 Know the available resources for identifying and resolving problems.

B4.3 Use technical writing and communication skills to work effectively with

diverse groups of people.

B4.4 Understand the principles of a customer-oriented service approach to users.

B5.0 Students understand and apply knowledge of effective Web page design and

management:

B5.1 Understand the purpose, scope, and development of a Web site.

B5.2 Know the relative features, strengths, and weaknesses of different authoring

programs and cross-platform issues.

B5.3 Use industry-standard programs to produce a Web-based business operation or

simulation.

B5.4 Know the tools needed to enable multimedia capabilities (e.g., still images,

animated graphics, sound, and video) for Web sites.

B5.5 Know strategies for optimizing Web design for fast delivery and retrieval.

B5.6 Know the tools needed to enable databases to collect data from Web site

visitors (e.g., how to create forms and create a database of collected

information and how to manage an online database) and the tools needed for

general Web site management, including basic HTML coding, Web site

statistical tracking, standard scripting languages, and advanced

communications protocols.

B5.7 Know the full process of Web hosting, including registering domain names,

setting up Web hosting, setting up e-mail addresses, and recognizing privacy

issues.

B5.8 Understand the hardware (server) and software required for Web hosting.

B5.9 Know the tools and process for registering Web sites with search directories

and engines and for enabling e-commerce capabilities (e.g., sell products,

create a shopping cart, and handle credit card transactions).

B5.10 Differentiate among various versions of Internet programming languages.

C. Network Communications Pathway

Students in the Network Communications Pathway prepare for careers that involve network

analysis, planning, and implementation, including the design, installation, maintenance, and

management of network systems. The successful establishment and maintenance of information

technology infrastructure is critical to the success of almost every twenty-first-century

organization. Employment continues to grow for persons with expertise in network

communications.

C1.0 Students understand how to identify and analyze the customer’s organizational network

system needs and requirements:

C1.1 Evaluate emerging products, services, and business models in relation to the

creation, setup, and management of network communication products and

services.

C1.2 Evaluate, create, and process voice, video, and data transmissions.

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C1.3 Understand the effective management of human, financial, and

communications resources from the standpoints of the user and the provider.

C1.4 Diagram physical and logical layouts of network communication systems.

C2.0 Students understand and use various types of networking models:

C2.1 Know the types of networks and their features and applications.

C2.2 Know how to implement a functional wired and wireless network, including the

installation and configuration of components, software, and plug-ins.

C2.3 Understand the functions of various network devices, including network

connectivity hardware.

C2.4 Distinguish between the topologies and protocols of local area networks and

those of wide area networks.

C2.5 Understand the differences between various network environments (e.g., peerto-

peer, client-server, thin client, n-tier, internetworks, intranets, and extranets).

C2.6 Evaluate, select, and deploy a variety of network architectures and protocols.

C2.7 Apply appropriate technologies to improve network performance.

C2.8 Identify, analyze, and evaluate emerging communications technologies for use

in organizations.

C3.0 Students understand network maintenance and user-support services:

C3.1 Know common customer policies and procedures, including those for

management of incidents.

C3.2 Understand the security procedures necessary to maintain and support a

network.

C3.3 Know the functions of common help-desk tools and resources, such as incident

tracking, knowledge database, and staffing.

C3.4 Understand effective methods of disseminating information and instruction to

users.

C4.0 Students understand network project management:

C4.1 Analyze network system interdependencies and constraints.

C4.2 Understand the processes used in managing and maintaining various types of

electronic networks.

C4.3 Understand implications of key protocols and international standards and their

impact on data transmission.

C5.0 Students understand network communication applications and infrastructure:

C5.1 Know the appropriate uses of communication services, products, and

applications.

C5.2 Use a variety of online services (e.g., purchasing, selling, tracking,

communicating, banking, and investing).

C5.3 Evaluate the features of communications software products in terms of their

appropriateness to organizational tasks.

C5.4 Configure compatible systems across various platforms and types of media.

C6.0 Students understand network administration through the monitoring of the information

and network systems:

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C6.1 Understand the importance of classifying appropriate monitoring devices and

procedures for quick identification and prevention of security violations.

C6.2 Know policies and procedures for routine administration (e.g., user agreement,

incident reporting, and recovery for users).

C6.3 Know common potential risks and entrance points, including internal and

external risks, and the tools used to neutralize them (e.g., firewalls; monitoring;

and antivirus, spyware, and spam protection).

C6.4 Know common techniques for disaster prevention and recovery.

D. Programming and Systems Development Pathway

Students in the Programming and Systems Development Pathway prepare for careers that

involve the design, development, and implementation of computer systems and software. Those

careers require knowledge of computer operating systems, programming languages, and software

development. Persons with expertise in programming and software development work with

cutting-edge technologies to develop tomorrow’s products for use by businesses and consumers.

D1.0 Students understand the strategies necessary to define and analyze systems and software

requirements:

D1.1 Develop information technology-based strategies and project plans to solve

specific problems.

D1.2 Know how systems and software requirements are determined in various

situations.

D1.3 Know the effective use of tools for software development.

D1.4 Know the software development process.

D2.0 Students understand programming languages:

D2.1 Know the fundamentals of programming languages and concepts.

D2.2 Compare programs by using control structures, procedures, functions,

parameters, variables, error recovery, and recursion.

D2.3 Understand digital logic, machine-level representation of data, memory-system

organization, and use of assembly-level programming architecture.

D3.0 Students understand the creation and design of a software program:

D3.1 Analyze customers’ needs and requirements for software.

D3.2 Know how specifications and codes are developed for new and existing

software applications.

D3.3 Understand the abstract organization of information and how programs

maintain the properties of the data structure while they perform such operations

as search, insert, or load-balancing.

D3.4 Know multiple ways in which to store, retrieve, and access information.

D3.5 Understand how to track software versions.

D4.0 Students understand the process of testing, debugging, and maintaining programs to meet

specifications:

D4.1 Know the steps involved in the software-testing process.

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D4.2 Know the methodologies of program maintenance to preserve intended

program applications and the operation of scheduled batch jobs and real-time

jobs.

D4.3 Know how different systems and associated utilities perform such functions as

file management, backup and recovery, and execution of programs.

D4.4 Understand the differences between simple and multiuser operating systems.

D5.0 Students understand the importance of quality assurance tasks in producing effective and

efficient products:

D5.1 Know the standards and requirements for software quality assurance.

D5.2 Know common quality assurance tasks and their place in the development

process.

D5.3 Understand the ways in which specification changes and technological

advances can require the modification of programs.

D5.4 Know various sorting and searching methods and their comparative advantages.

D5.5 Know the characteristics of reliable, effective, and efficient products.

D6.0 Students understand the importance of effective interfaces in the interaction between

humans and computer systems:

D6.1 Understand how to support access, privacy, and high ethical standards in

computing.

D6.2 Use knowledge of cognitive, physical, and social interactions to create and

design user-friendly computer practices and applications that meet the needs of

the market.

Project Overview Page 4

Marketing Career Cluster Status Report

Copyright © 2008, Marketing Education Resource Center®

Tier 2: Marketing Core

The second tier of specificity represented those skills and knowledge that were identified as common

across the five marketing pathways. The instructional areas addressed in this tier include Channel

Management, Marketing-Information Management, Market Planning, Pricing, Product/Service

Management, Promotion, and Selling.

Tier 3: Marketing Pathways

This tier addressed the content of a variety of broad-based occupational opportunities called

Pathways. To aid in determining when a particular set of knowledge and skills constituted a

pathway, MarkED researchers established criteria that must be present for a pathway to exist. These

criteria are:

Presence of a discrete, core body of knowledge

Existence of a career ladder

Extent of professional certification and training

Existence of professional association(s)

Critical mass in terms of number of jobs

The Marketing Pathways addressed in the initial States’ Career Cluster Initiative were analyzed to

determine whether modifications were needed since six years had passed since the original research.

Research findings indicated that the pathways to be addressed in the Marketing Cluster had changed

since the work was completed in 2001.

Buying and Merchandising was shortened to focus on Merchandising since many business

representatives considered them one in the same.

Distribution and Logistics was dropped from the Marketing Cluster since

distribution/logistics/supply chain management had become recognized as primary functions

in Business.

Electronic Marketing had been absorbed into the mainstream of marketing activities rather

than being treated as a separate, distinct entity; therefore, it was dropped as a pathway.

Management and Entrepreneurship were addressed in all clusters, and became an

instructional area within each of the clusters of interest.

Marketing Communication and Promotion was shortened to Marketing Communications.

Marketing-Information Management and Research was shortened to Marketing Research to

reflect the job titles/opportunities in the pathway.

Professional Sales and Marketing was changed to Professional Selling to focus specifically

on sales activities.

The original Marketing Pathway titles are identified in Figure 1 along with the 2007 title

modifications.

Project Overview Page 5

Marketing Career Cluster Status Report

Copyright © 2008, Marketing Education Resource Center®

Figure 1. Comparison of 2001 and 2007 Marketing Pathways

Tier 4: Marketing Specialties

The final tier of specificity contained curricular content unique to a product/service. It addressed job

opportunities associated with each pathway. In Professional Selling, for example, some job

opportunities are pharmaceutical sales, real-estate sales, and advertising sales.

Curricular Model Components

The curricular content was organized into Knowledge and Skill Statements, Performance Elements,

and Performance Indicators. Definitions and examples are as follows:

Knowledge and Skill Statement

A broad level of knowledge and skill that encapsulates the overarching intent/purpose of a work

function

Characteristics:

Broad based

Not measurable in and of itself

Scope determined through more specific units of work or specific learning expectations

Comparable to:

Content standard

~Unit of instruction

Examples:

1. Selling : Understands the concepts and actions needed to determine client needs and wants

and respond through planned, personalized communication that influences purchase

decisions and enhances future business opportunities.

2. Promotion: Understands the concepts and strategies needed to communicate information

about products, services, images, and/or ideas to achieve a desired outcome

The Knowledge and Skill Statements developed for the Business Administration Core are as

follows:

Business Law: Understands business’s responsibility to know, abide by, and enforce laws and

regulations that affect business operations and transactions

Communication Skills: Understands the concepts, strategies, and systems used to obtain and

convey ideas and information

Customer Relations: Understands the techniques and strategies used to foster positive, ongoing

relationships with customers

Economics: Understands the economic principles and concepts fundamental to business operations

Emotional Intelligence: Understands techniques, strategies, and systems used to foster selfunderstanding

and enhance relationships with others

Entrepreneurship: Understands the concepts, processes, and skills associated with identifying new

ideas, opportunities, and methods and with creating or starting a new project or venture

Financial Analysis: Understands tools, strategies, and systems used to maintain, monitor, control,

and plan the use of financial resources

Human Resource Management: Understands the tools techniques, and systems that businesses use

to plan, staff, lead, and organize its human resources

Information Management: Understands tools, strategies, and systems needed to access, process,

maintain, evaluate, and disseminate information to assist business decision-making

Marketing: Understands the tools, techniques, and systems that businesses use to create exchanges

and satisfy organizational objectives

Operations: Understands the processes and systems implemented to monitor, plan, and control the

day-to-day activities required for continued business functioning

Professional Development: Understands concepts, tools, and strategies used to explore, obtain, and

develop in a business career

Strategic Management: Understands tools, techniques, and systems that affect a business’s ability

to plan, control, and organize an organization/department

The Marketing Core is composed of the following seven Knowledge and Skill Statements:

Channel Management: Understands the concepts and processes needed to identify, select,

monitor, and evaluate sales channels

Marketing-Information Management: Understands the concepts, systems, and tools needed to

gather, access, synthesize, evaluate, and disseminate information for use in making business

decisions

Project Overview Page 7

Marketing Career Cluster Status Report

Copyright © 2008, Marketing Education Resource Center®

Market Planning: Understands the concepts and strategies utilized to determine and target

marketing strategies to a select audience

Pricing: Understands concepts and strategies utilized in determining and adjusting prices to

maximize return and meet customers’ perceptions of value

Product/Service Management: Understands the concepts and processes needed to obtain,

develop, maintain, and improve a product or service mix in response to market opportunities

Promotion: Understands the concepts and strategies needed to communicate information about

products, services, images, and/or ideas to achieve a desired outcome

Selling: Understands the concepts and actions needed to determine client needs and wants and

respond through planned, personalized communication that influences purchase decisions and

enhances future business opportunities

Performance Element

Multiple broad-based work or cognitive performances that define the K&S statement and that are

further defined by a series of related performance indicators

Comparable to:

Duty area

Major topic

Characteristics:

Subset of Knowledge and Skill statements

Measured through performance indicators

Examples for Selling:

1. Acquire product knowledge needed to perform professional selling

2. Employ processes and techniques to sell goods/services/ideas

3. Utilize support activities to provide satisfying sales activities

4. Use staffing, organizing, leading, controlling, and planning to manage sales activities

Performance Indicator

A specific work-based action—either knowledge or skill--that specifies what a worker must know

or be able to do to achieve the performance element.

Comparable to:

Task

Competency

Characteristics:

Measurable; quality of work can be determined

Can be performed by an individual worker

Specific/detailed vs. open to interpretation

Not:

Steps in a process

A learning/classroom activity

Examples for Selling Acquire product knowledge needed to perform professional selling

1. Synthesize information accompanying product.

2. Obtain product information available the Web.

3. Read promotional literature from manufacturers/service providers.

4. Analyze competitors’ product/service information.

5. Determine product/service benefits.

Project Overview P

______________________________

Sophomores

Accounting


Primary Focus»
  • Business Core Economics and Financial Concepts; Accounting Procedures and Financial Analysis; Financial Analysis; Financial and Managerial Accounting; Economics; Computer Science and Informational Technology; Administrative Support; Selling Concepts; Merchandising; and Entrepreneurship


Business Standards Covered»
CTE Foundation Standards:
  • Business/Financial Relationships: FS7.7.1, FS7.7.2
  • Exchange Rates: FS1.1(1.2), FS1.1.3(12.6.4)
  • Financial Statements: FS2.2.1(2.1), FS5.5.4
  • Investments: FS1.1.3(12.2.9), FS1.1.3(12.2.2)
  • Money Management: FS10.10.2
  • Cash Management: FS10.10.1
  • Computer Accounting Systems: FS4.4.1
  • Decision Making: FS5.5.1
  • Ethics: FS8.8.2, FS8.8.3
  • Financial Analysis: FS10.10.2
  • Governing Agencies: FS8.8.1
  • Supply and Demand: FS1.1.3(12.2.1), FS1.1.3(12.2.2)
  • Computer Applications: FS4.4.3, FS4.4.4, FS4.4.5
  • Knowledge Management and Business Processes: FS5.5.2
  • Technical Resources: FS4.4.2
CTE Pathway Standards - Accounting Services
  • Accounting Cycle: A1.1.1, A1.1.2, A1.1.3, A1.1.4
  • Accounting Principles: A2.2.1, A2.2.3, A2.2.5
  • Payroll: A2.2.6
  • Capital Budgeting: A4.4.1
  • Classified Balance Sheet: A2.2.5
  • Cash Management: A4.4.2
  • Costing Methods: A4.4.3
  • Internal Reporting: A4.4.3
  • Owner's Equity: A3.3.3
  • Receivables and Payables Management: A4.4.1
  • Revenue: A3.3.3
  • Financial Planning: A4.4.3


Introduction»

Accounting is the cornerstone of any business. The accounting system is designed to collect, document, and report on financial transactions affecting the business. Financial information can be processed and recorded by a manual accounting system or by a computerized accounting system. Owners and investors who risk their money depend on accountants to report the results of operations and the financial conditions of the business in which they invest. Accurate record keeping is essential in order to measure the condition of a business.

All accountants use the same set of rules, called "generally accepted accounting principles" or GAAP (pronounced "gap") to prepare their reports. Accounting principles provide a way to communicate financial information in a way that is understood by those who are interested in the financial conditions of a business. Accounting is often called the language of business, because it is based upon several very simple principles concerning financial transactions and reports.

The Real World Application

An accounting system is the orderly recording of financial transactions. This recordkeeping is used to produce accounting reports that are necessary for financial and money management. The information found in these reports has a wide audience. In general, there are two main types of accounting and two main groups that use accounting reports. The following are the two types of accounting: financial and management or managerial accounting. The following groups use one or both of these types of reports:

  1. financial accounting focuses on external users or individuals outside the business who have an interest in the business
  2. management/managerial accounting focus on internal users or individuals inside the business.

The life of a business is divided into specific periods of time. One of these periods of time is the accounting period which can cover one month, three months (quarterly), and one year. These reports produced for these periods may vary from business to business; however, the most common period of reporting for most businesses is one year.

The Virtual World Application

An accounting system in the Virtual World is also the orderly recording of company financial transactions. The same recordkeeping formats necessary for "real" companies are also necessary for the "virtual" companies. By developing and keeping accurate financial records monthly, the Virtual Enterprise companies will be able to determine how well their companies are doing financially.

Given the limited exposure of many high school students to accounting, it has been proven to be an area where many Virtual Enterprises need support. Both of the two types of accounting, financial and management or managerial, are necessary for the "virtual" companies. Some companies may choose to focus on the financial accounting more than the managerial type due to the lack of exposure to accounting principles. However, most Virtual Enterprise companies should work with both types of accounting as their companies develop.

This unit is intended to provide an overview of the accounting functions in a Virtual Enterprise, along with examples and reference materials. It is recommended that Virtual Enterprises use Excel in MS Office 2000.



Objective»

Each Virtual Enterprise company will establish a working set of books using an accounting system that records financial transactions in an orderly manner.

Each Virtual Enterprise company will develop payroll procedures.

Each Virtual Enterprise company will determine their federal and state corporate taxes and other taxes that may apply.



Implementation»
Time Line: 1st Quarter
  • November 1 - April 30 company books (recordkeeping) are kept for financial accounting, managerial accounting, and Annual Report purposes
  • May 1 - May 31 company books kept, as needed.


Recommended Steps to Follow»
  1. Read the information presented in the Accounting Unit along with the Basic Accounting Principles (Accounting Samples) and miscellaneous worksheets. Also, the information at the following web sites may be helpful as company is beginning to set up their books:
  2. Design the company's basic accounts or chart of accounts. Usually some type of numbering system is used for the various accounts. These accounts are kept in the company's general ledger, a book which contains all the ledger accounts and control accounts. Excel2000 has a number of templates, most of which are set up for either 12 months (1 year) or 8 quarters (2 years). These accounts should be set up by the sixth week of the first quarter. They will probably change throughout the year.
  3. Design, implement and maintain the company's general journal for the recording of financial transactions. The general journal is used to post credits, debits, and references to accounts.
  4. Develop and implement company's operating monthly budget. Identify sources of income and sources of expenses.
    • Income sources will be Business Contract sales, sales to companies and sales to individuals, Trade Fair sales, and visitor sales.
    • Expense sources will be company operating expenses (rent, electricity, water, supplies, etc.), payroll, payroll taxes, sales tax ( if applicable), and corporate taxes.
    • Cost of merchandise sold, if service company, and miscellaneous sales discounts need to be considered when preparing budget.
  5. Design, implement and maintain the company's trial balance and worksheet. Information for this comes from the general ledger.
  6. Determine the company's payroll. Set up gross monthly income and payroll taxes using QuickBooks software, Peachtree Accounting software, www.paycheckcity.com, or information in the payroll sample lesson. Determine how employees will be paid: weekly, twice a month, or monthly.
  7. Complete monthly financial statements: The income statement reports the net income or net loss earned by the business in a fiscal period (monthly, quarterly, and yearly). The balance sheet reports the final, updated balances of all assets, liabilities, and stockholder's (owner's) equity accounts as of a specific date.
  8. Determine company taxes payable in a fiscal period (monthly, quarterly, and yearly). For most companies, these taxes will be the company payroll taxes and corporate, both federal and state, taxes. Companies selling merchandise will also be paying sales taxes (use current state sales tax percentage).
  9. Develop and implement company's invoicing format and the company's invoice form. Keep track of all invoices and accounts receivable.
  10. Develop and implement company's purchase order format and the company's purchase order form. Keep track of all purchase orders and accounts payable.
  11. Develop and implement company's inventory management system, if applicable.


Accounting Due Dates: Reports and Transactions»
Complete the following reports monthly:
  • Schedules of accounts receivable- Add up the total subsidiary accounts and make sure they balance with the general ledger.
  • Schedules of accounts payable- Add up the total subsidiary accounts and make sure they balance with the general ledger.
  • Trial Balance
  • Worksheet
  • Income Statement
  • Balance Sheet
  • Complete payroll monthly (or whatever time frame you use)
  • Record business transactions daily
Other Reports and Transactions
  • Business/Strategic Plan-Due November 1 (or end of week 8 for 10-hour program and week 16 for 5-hour program)
  • Pay payroll taxes-End of each month to the Central Bank of California-make checks payable to Franchise Tax Board for California related taxes and the Internal Revenue for Federal related taxes.
  • Pay sales taxes-End of each month to the Central Bank of California-make checks payable to Franchise Tax Board of California.
  • Individual and corporate taxes-Due April 15 to the Central Bank of California-make checks payable to the Internal Revenue Service for federal taxes and the Franchise Tax Board of California for state taxes.
  • Company books should be closed April 30.
  • Annual Report-Due May 15 (or end of week 32 for 10-hour program or week 33 for 5-hour program).
Components of the Annual Report
  • Accomplishments
  • Goals and Objectives
  • Highlights of the year
  • Financial Statements-Income Statement and Balance Sheet
  • Notes and Explanations to the Financial Statements


Evaluation Rubric»

An Accounting Rubric and Grade Summary have been provided for evaluation purposes.



Other Resources»

See the following web sites for further information:

ACCOUNTING ACCOUNTING - Payroll JOB DESCRIPTION - Writing JOB DESCRIPTIONS - Samples BUSINESS PLANS - Writing BUSINESS PLANS - Samples GREAT GENERAL RESOURCES PERSONAL FINANCE INTERNATIONAL EXCHANGE RATES WEB DESIGN

Business Communications


Primary Focus»
  • Business Core: Business Communications; Career Preparation, Job Acquisition and Retention; Information Technologies; Leadership Development; Business Management, International Business; Entrepreneurship.


Business Standards Covered»
CTE Foundation Standards
  • Business Communications: FS2.2.5, FS2.2.2(2.5), FS2.2.4(2.3), FS2.2.4(2.6)
  • Career Preparation, Job Acquisition and Retention: FS3.3.1, FS3.3.2, FS3.3.3, FS3.3.6
  • Information Technologies: FS4.4.2
  • Leadership Development: FS9.9.4
CTE Pathway Standards
  • E-commerce: A3.3.1, A5.5.1
  • Information Support and Services: A1.1.3, A6.6.2
  • Media Support and Services: B2.2.1, B4.4.3


Introduction»
Real World Application
  • Effective business communication is an essential part of a successful business. Business communication entails three vital areas: written correspondence, verbal communication, and body language.
Virtual World Application
  • As in the real world, effective business communication is an essential part of a successful virtual business.


Objective»

All virtual business employees will have an understanding of effective business communication.



Implementation»
Time Line 1st Quarter (revisions throughout year, as needed.)

Recommended Steps to Follow»

Step 1: Know your purpose - What is the overall goal of the communication?

Step 2: Determine your audience - Who is receiving the information?

Step 3: Select appropriate means of communication - Type and format of communication must take into account the audience.

Step 4: Be consistent - Do not change format or tone throughout the message.

General Written Communication Guidelines

Effective business writing is necessary for business letters, office memos, project reports, and various other means of written communication. Accepted style requirements for writing business correspondence include:

  • Brevity - Keep it to the point. Use as few words as possible without losing the objectives of the message.
  • Clarity - Be clear and concise to ensure easy understanding of the message.
  • Grammar and Spelling - Proofread the correspondence for grammar and spelling errors before it is released to its audience.

Pay attention to detail. Do not allow written communication to be released to its audience before it has been proofread for errors and content. Business communication can create a positive or negative public image of the company. It can also make or break a sale.

Written communication can also help or hinder the writer's career progress. Upper-level managers or executives may only know the writer by the writer's written correspondence.

Methods of Communication

The following methods of communication have been included in this unit. Click on the link to access the respective lesson and samples, or access the component from the "Samples" list located in the Business Communications introduction page.

  • Addressing an Envelope - Business correspondence should always be sent out with a properly addressed envelope. This section provides guidelines for addressing envelopes.
  • Business Letters - A business letter is written correspondence intended for an audience outside of the company. There are various acceptable forms of a business letter. This section provides information on correct business letter formatting and the components that every business letter should contain. Examples have also been provided in the following formats.
    • Business Letters - Block Format with Letterhead
    • Business Letters - Block Format with NO Letterhead
    • Business Letters - Modified Block Format with Letterhead
    • Business Letters - Modified Block Format with NO Letterhead
  • Creating Company Letterhead - Business correspondence should be created on company letterhead. This section provides information on creating company letterhead.
  • Email Etiquette - Electronic mail is written correspondence transmitted over the World Wide Web (Internet). This section provides valuable insight on proper email etiquette.
  • Facsimile - A facsimile is a paper image (i.e., printed document) that is transmitted over a telephone line via a fax machine. This section provides an example and information concerning professional facsimile formatting.
  • Memorandums - A memorandum is in-house written communication. It is only intended to be seen by company personnel. This section provides an example and information on creating a memorandum.
  • Telephone Etiquette - Proper telephone etiquette is essential in the workplace. This section provides information concerning professional telephone etiquette.


Evaluation Rubric»

A Business Communications Rubric and Grade Summary have been provided for evaluation purposes.


Business Plan


Primary Focus»
  • Business Standards: Business Communications; Business Environment; Economics and Financial Concepts; Leadership Development; Accounting Procedures and Financial Analysis; Financial and Managerial Accounting; Economics; Legal Environment; Management Principles; Marketing Strategies; Selling Concepts; Entrepreneurship


Business Standards Covered»
CTE Foundation Standards
  • Business Communications: FS2.2.2(1.4), FS2.2.2(1.8), FS2.2.2(1.9), FS2.2.2(2.4a-d), FS2.2.2(2.4)
  • Business Environment: FS7.7.1
  • Economics and Financial Concepts: FS1.1.3(12.2.3), FS1.1.3(12.2.2)
  • Information Technologies: FS4.4.2
  • Decision Making: FS5.5.1, FS5.5.3
  • Economics: FS1.1.3(12.4.2), FS1.1.3(12.4.3)
CTE Pathway Standards
  • Accounting Services: A1.1.1, A1.1.2, A2.2.1, A2.2.5, A4.4.3, A4.4.4
  • Financial Management: C1.1.1, C1.1.2, C1.1.3, C2.2.1
  • Media Support and Services: B1.1.2, B1.1.4, B1.1.7, B2.2.1
  • Entrepreneurship: B1.1.3, B1.1.4, B1.1.5, B1.1.6, B2.2.1, B2.2.2, B2.2.3, B2.2.4, B2.2.5, B4.4.2, B4.4.4


Introduction»

The Business Plan is a valuable management tool that can be utilized in a wide variety of situations. In most companies, the plan is used at a minimum to:

  • Set the goals and objectives for the company's performance.
  • Provide a basis for evaluating and controlling the company's performance.
  • Communicate a company's message to middle managers, outside directors, lenders, and potential investors.

The Business Plan is used as a powerful money-raising tool to obtain loans from lending agencies. A well-written Business Plan helps a Virtual Enterprise secure start-up funding. It also allows an existing Virtual Enterprise to request additional funding for continued operation and/or expansion.

Real World Application

An effective Business Plan does more than help convince prospective investors that the proposed new (or existing) business is sound. It provides a detailed blueprint for the activities needed to finance the business and develop and market the product and/or service. Business Plans are also used for the continuing operation of a firm. A properly developed and well-written business plan should answer questions such as:

  • Would it be attractive to lending institutions?
  • Does the proposed business have a reasonable chance for success at the start?
  • Does it have any long-run competitive advantages to the owners? To the investors? To employees?
  • Can the product be produced efficiently?
  • Can it be marketed effectively?
  • Can the product and marketing of the product be economically financed?
  • Can the prospective owners express the plans for the proposed business in writing in a clear, concise, and logical way so that it is easily understood and convincing to potential investors or lenders?
  • Is every department adequately represented?
  • Is it clear what each department wants to accomplish?
  • Is there evidence of teamwork and coherency?
Virtual World Application

In the Virtual World, a properly developed and well-written business plan addresses the same Real World questions. However, in the Virtual World, business contracts are proposed to cover a percentage of a company's proposed expenses.

In summary, if the plan is properly developed and written, it provides more than mere numbers on paper. It serves as an effective communication tool to convey ideas, research findings, and proposed plans to others. Secondly, it forms the basis for managing the new (or existing) venture. Lastly, it serves as a means by which to evaluate needed changes. Developing and writing a Business Plan takes much time and effort, but the result can make the difference between success and failure. The Business Plan should show how all the pieces of a company fit together to create a vibrant organization capable of meeting its goals and objectives.

Note: if competing in the California State or the National Business Plan competition do not rely solely on this unit. To be competitive, it is imperative that the competition rubrics (written and oral) are closely followed.



Objective»

All Virtual Enterprise employees will be able to participate in writing a complete Business Plan, including the following components: Cover Sheets, Statement of Purpose, Table of Contents, Mission Statement, Executive Summary, Objective Statement, Company Description, Personnel Overview, Market Analysis, SWOT Analysis, Marketing Plan, Operation Procedures, Loan Application (or Summary), Start-Up Budget, Pro-Forma Balance Sheet, Pro-Forma Income Projections, Pro-Forma Cash Flow, Financial Summary, and Supporting Documents.



Implementation»
Time Line: 1st Quarter

When designing the Business Plan, keep close track of the VE calendar. The Business Plan should be ready in hard copy format to be presented as prescribed by the task timeline on the VE web site. The Business Plan is one of the most important assignments of any enterprise. Therefore, start as early as possible. Expect the total time spent on this project to range anywhere from four to six weeks. Note that revisions may take additional time. Quality time should be spent on preparing the Financial Data and estimating Business Contracts. (See Accounting and Finance).

Because the business plan is such an important document, it should be arranged logically and presented clearly. Although the information that should be included tends to be standardized, the format is not. Regardless of the specific format chosen, any plan should include at least the following:

  1. Introductory Components
    1. Cover Sheet
    2. Table of Contents
    3. Executive Summary
    4. Statement of Purpose
    5. Objective Statement
    6. Mission Statement
    7. Company Description
    8. Personnel
  2. Market Analysis
    1. Industry Analysis
    2. Target Market
    3. Market Segmentation
  3. SWOT Analysis
    1. SWOT
    2. Discussion of Business Risks
  4. Marketing Plan
    1. Marketing Mix
  5. Operating Procedures
    1. Location
    2. Equipment
    3. Labor
    4. Process
    5. Product Acquistion, Storage, and Distribution
  6. Financial Data
    1. Loan Document
    2. Start-Up Budget
    3. Pro-Forma Balance Sheet
    4. Pro-Forma Income Statement
    5. Pro-Forma Cash Flow Statement
    6. Break-even Analysis
    7. Financial Write-Up
  7. Supporting Documents
    1. Required Documents
      1. Proposed lease agreement or purchase agreement for building space
      2. Resumes of all principals (CEO and management team)
      3. Business Contracts - proposed
    2. Optional Documents
      1. Licenses
      2. Letters of Intent
      3. Other relevant documents


Recommended Steps to Follow»
Step 1 - Identify Objectives
  • Determine who will read the plan
  • Decide what should be known about the company (e.g. business description, product/service, new or existing company, financial need, etc.)
Step 2 - Outline the Business Plan
  • Prepare a detailed outline based on objectives
    • Break out sections
      • Introductory Components
      • Market Analysis
      • SWOT Analysis
      • Marketing Plan
      • Operating Procedures
      • Financial Data
      • Supporting Documents
Step 3 - Review Outline
  • Identify areas of the outline that will require the most detailed support
  • Identify areas of the outline that will require a summary
Step 4 - Determine Business Plan Writing Team

The company's management team should prepare the Business Plan. Each manager should be assigned a section of the plan and must include members of their department to assist with completing that section.

Step 5 - Preliminary Research

The order in which the specific elements of the plan are developed will vary depending on the age of the company and the experience of its staff in preparing business plans. Even so, certain research must be completed before formal writing of the plan begins. This will provide a basis for many of the assumptions and strategies eventually described in the Business Plan. The research includes:

  1. Collect historical financial information about the company
    • Balance Sheets
    • Income Statements
    • Existing Loan Information
    • Additional Financial Information (e.g. cash flow, break-even analysis, etc.)
  2. Complete market research:
    • Industry Analysis - describe the performance of other firms in related industries and markets, both virtual and real. Determine competitive national and local business trends, identifying strengths and threats to be addressed in long and short term planning. Compare the company vision and experience against averages for similar operations.
    • Market Segmentation - identify potential customers that may be divided into workable segments such as: age, income, product type, geography, buying patterns, and customer needs.
    • Target Market - identify defined segments of the market that are the strategic focus of the business. These defined segments are made up of people that possess common characteristics and have a greater tendency to purchase a particular product or service. These characteristics of a target market include geographic, demographic, and psychographic elements. As such, people in this market represent the greatest potential for sales volume and frequency.
  3. Research and Develop Financial Data
    • Start-Up Budget (one-time expenses) such as:
      • Administrative Personnel
        1. Salary expense for administrative team prior to opening
      • Salaries/Wages
        1. Personnel expense for employees hired at or after opening
      • Advertising/Promotions
      • Construction Costs
      • Equipment
      • Furniture and Fixtures
      • Inventory
      • Legal/Professional Consulting fees
      • Licenses
      • Pre-paid Insurance
      • Rent Deposit
      • Supplies
      • Utilities Deposit
    • Operating Budget (on-going monthly expenses) such as:
      • Advertising/Promotions
      • Bank Service Charges
      • Equipment
      • Insurance
      • Inventory
      • Janitorial Services
      • Legal/Professional fees
      • Licenses
      • Rent
      • Salaries/Wages
      • Payroll Taxes
      • Supplies
      • Utilities
      • Vehicle Expenses
Step 6 - Write the Plan

All writing rules including grammar, spelling and punctuation need to be carefully applied. In addition, the following guidelines will assist in preparing a successful business plan.

  • Be honest and reveal the significant and relevant aspects of the plan - avoid lies.
  • Use the third person, not the first person "I."
  • Use transitional words, such as but, still, therefore, and hence, to smoothly lead the reader from one thought to another.
  • Avoid redundancies, such as "future plans." Such repetition adds nothing to the presentation.
  • Use short, simple words where feasible, so the plan will be easy to understand.
  • Use visuals such as tables, charts, photos, and computer graphics to present your ideas effectively.

The plan should be prepared in an 8 1/2 x 11-inch format, typewritten and laser printed (if possible), with copies for the investors attractively bound. Most Business Plans can be presented effectively in 25 to 30 pages. The plan should be grammatically correct and should always be proofread before it is presented. Only when pertinent, the cover and title pages should indicate that the information is proprietary since it might offend a potential investor.

  1. Mission Statement - briefly state (2-4 sentences) the direction for the company. It is the guiding principle for the entire business. The statement should represent the company's goal, what the company stands for, and their focus for the future. Suggested guidelines include:
    • Narrow enough to give direction and guidance to everyone in the business
    • Large enough to allow the business to grow and realize its potential
    • Must be realistic, achievable, and brief.
    • Captures the essence of an organization without being so vague that it could apply to every other organization too.
  2. Objective Statement - specify time-based goals that can be monitored and measured, that the company wishes to achieve.
    • "Being the best" or "maximize customer satisfaction" cannot really be measured. Much better objectives would set measurable goals, such as holding gross margin to 25 percent as a minimum, or selling more than $4 million, or achieving six percent profit on sales and 10 percent return on equity.
    • EXAMPLES: "Achieve annual sales of $1.1 million"; "Open gift shop in Anytown at Third Street Public Market with five-year lease."; "Maintain gross margin of 25 percent"; Expand product family by adding 10 different kinds of flowers and flower arrangements in 2004".
  3. Company Description - describe in general terms a clear and concise picture of what the company does, what it will offer, where it will operate, when it will transact business, and how it will succeed.
    • Type of business
      • Industry segment(s)
      • Company offerings
    • Legal Description
      • Where the company was formed
      • How the company is structured (sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation)
    • Effective Date
      • Date the company is projected to open for business (new company).
      • Date the company originally opened for business (existing company).
    • Company Location
      • Street Address
      • City, State, Zip Code
    • Organizational Chart
    • History of Company (existing businesses only)
    • Current Status (existing businesses only)
    • Future Goals
  4. Personnel - specify key personnel including the CEO and management team.
    • Name
    • Job title
    • Personal qualifications - (Student's actual qualifications)
  5. Market
    • Market Analysis
      • Industry Analysis
        1. Real Industry
        2. Virtual Industry - based on historical data
      • Market Segmentation - identify potential customers in a target market that may be divided into workable segments such as:
        1. Age
        2. Income
        3. Product type
        4. Geography
        5. Buying patterns
        6. Customer needs
      • Target Market
    • SWOT Analysis
      • Internal Audit
        1. Strengths - identify the company's resources and capabilities that can be used as a basis for developing a competitive advantage.
        2. Weaknesses - identify any internal areas of weakness that pose a threat to the company's competitive advantage
      • External Audit (4 external forces: economic, technological, competitive, social/cultural/environmental)
        1. Opportunities- describe areas that may reveal certain new opportunities for profit and growth.
        2. Threats - discuss changes in the external environment that may present threats to the company.
    • Marketing Plan - outline specific actions the company will take to interest potential customers and clients in its product and/or service and persuade them to buy the product and/or service offered.
      • Product - identify the physical product/service offered to the consumer as well as any services or conveniences that are part of the offering.
      • Price - use any combination of the following to determine the price of the product/service:
        1. evaluate product features and customer benefits
        2. determine the cost of production
        3. note competitors' prices
        4. ask key customers what price they are willing to pay
        5. get feedback from salespeople
        6. consider typical customers' "disposable income"
        7. solicit advice from consultants or business associates
      • Placement (Distribution) -
      • identify channels of distribution that serve as the means of getting the product/service to the target customers.
      • describe the distribution system that performs transactional, logistical, and facilitating functions.
      • Promotion - discuss the method of communicating and selling the product/service to potential consumers.
  6. Operating Procedures - determine the internal operations and process necessary to deliver the product/service.
    • Location - list information about the location of the business including:
      • Number of Locations
      • Square Footage
      • Type of Space - (office, warehouse, manufacturing, or combination)
      • Advantage of Location(s)
    • Equipment - describe significant equipment needed, including cost.
    • Labor - list the number of employees, schedules, functions, and pay.
    • Process
      • Acquiring Products
      • Storing Products
      • Distributing Products/Services
  7. Loan Documents
    • Loan Application for new company
    • Loan Summary for existing company - summarize the current status of the loan including:
      • Original Amount of Loan
      • Loan Issue Date
      • Loan Pay-Off Date
      • Remaining Balance
  8. Start Up Budget - A plan for the company's income and expenses from the time the business starts to when it makes a profit. Calculate the following one-time expenses:
    • Administrative Personnel
      • Salary expense for administrative team prior to opening
    • Salaries/Wages
      • Personnel expense for employees hired at or after opening
    • Inventory
    • Legal/professional fees
    • Licenses
    • Insurance
    • Rent
    • Equipment
    • Utilities
    • Supplies
    • Advertising/Promotions
  9. Financial Data
    • Balance Sheet - A financial statement that summarizes a company's assets, liabilities and shareholders' equity at a specific point in time. These three balance sheet segments give investors an idea as to what the company owns and owes, as well as the amount invested by the shareholders.*
    • Proforma Income Statement (3-year projection: year 1 monthly details and years 2 and 3 quarterly details) - A financial report that - by summarizing revenues and expenses, and showing the net profit or loss in a specified accounting period - depicts a business entity's financial performance due to operations as well as other activities rendering gains or losses. Also known as the "profit and loss statement" or "statement of revenue and expense". The income statement is the most analyzed portion of the financial statements. It displays how well the company can assure success for both itself and its shareholders through the earnings from operations.*
    • Proforma Cash Flow Statement (3-year projection: year 1 monthly details and years 2 and 3 quarterly details) -One of the quarterly financial reports any publicly traded company is required to disclose to the SEC and the public. The document provides aggregate data regarding all cash inflows a company receives from both its ongoing operations and external investment sources, as well as all cash outflows that pay for business activities and investments during a given quarter. Because public companies tend to use accrual accounting, the income statements they release each quarter may not necessarily reflect changes in their cash positions. For example, if a company lands a major contract, this contract would be recognized as revenue (and therefore income), but the company may not yet actually receive the cash from the contract until a later date. While the company may be earning a profit in the eyes of accountants (and paying income taxes on it), the company may, during the quarter, actually end up with less cash than when it started the quarter. Even profitable companies can fail to adequately manage their cash flow, which is why the cash flow statement is important: it helps investors see if a company is having trouble with cash.*
    • Break-even Analysis - A mathematical method for analyzing the relationships among a firm's fixed costs, profits, and variable costs. Financial analysts are particularly interested in how changes in output and sales will translate into changes in earnings.*
    • Financial Write-Up - summary of the financial documents including the assumptions on which the projections were based.

    * definitions provided by Dictionary.com



Evaluation Rubric»

The following Business Plan evaluation tools have a duel purpose: 1) To be used by the students when preparing the business plan; 2) To be used by the judges during the competition phase.

Written Rubric [pdf] - aka "Judges' Rubric" - a comprehensive document that details all required elements of a written Business Plan

Written Scoresheet [pdf] - a summarized version of the written rubric; the tool used by the teacher or a judge for recording scores of the written Business Plan.

Oral Rubric [pdf] - aka "Judges' Rubric" - a comprehensive document that details all required elements of the Business Plan oral presentation

Oral Scoresheet [pdf] - a summarized version of the oral rubric; the tool used by a teacher or a judge for recording scores during the oral presentation of the Business Plan.



Other Resources»

See the following web sites for further information regarding international trade:


Home | Shopping Mall | VirtuBank | Contact

Oral Presentation


Primary Focus»
  • Business Core: Business Communications; Employability Skills; Information Technology; Leadership Development; Computer Science and Information Technology


Business Standards Covered»
CTE Foundation Standards
  • Business Communications: FS2.2.2(2.4a-d), FS2.2.3(1.3), FS2.2.4(2.5), FS2.2.4(2.6)
  • Employability Skills: FS3.3.1, FS9.9.5, FS7.7.1, FS7.7.2, FS7.7.3, FS7.7.4
  • Information Technologies: FS4.4.2
  • Leadership Development: FS9.9.1, FS9.9.3
  • Communication & Interpersonal Skills: FS7.7.4, FS9.9.5
CTE Pathway Standards
  • Media Support and Services: B1.1.4, B1.1.6, B1.1.7, B2.2.1, B2.2.3, B3.3.1, B3.3.2, B3.3.3, B4.4.3, B4.4.4


Introduction»
Real World Application

An oral presentation (face-to-face) is an effective way for a business to share information while having the opportunity to interact with the audience directly. Some general reasons to deliver an oral presentation might include:

  • Seeking investors or a bank loan
  • Promoting products and services
  • Presenting status, goals, and condition of the company (Business Plan, Annual Report)
  • Communicating with staff (training)
  • Introducing and explaining company structure
Virtual World Application

In addition to the real world applications, oral presentations are a very large part of the Business Plan, Annual Report, and various Virtual Business trade fair competitions.



Objective»

Successful oral presentations occur when the audience responds appropriately to the material presented. In order to reach the desired outcome, the presenter must have a clear understanding of what they want to achieve and who the audience is. Anyone can give a good presentation if they plan, prepare, and practice, practice, practice!



Implementation»

Good presentations take time and require careful planning. Keep close track of the calendar. Allow sufficient time to accomplish all tasks and complete the presentation with ample time to practice, practice, and practice some more. For major projects like a Business Plan presentation, you should anticipate the total time to be spent on design and development (including PowerPoint) to range anywhere from two to three weeks. Try to identify all the tasks that need to be accomplished and create a deadline (timeline) for each element to be completed. Remember to include time for proofreading and rewriting. Assign appropriate personnel (one or more people) to each task. The following is a list of items that you might want to consider.

  • Coordinator
  • Timeline - develop and track
  • Outline - main points
  • art work, design
  • topic research
  • demographic research - audience, location
  • graphs, tables, and/or charts
  • gathering materials
  • secretarial support
  • proofreading / making the corrections
  • creating a back-up presentation
  • hardcopies - for audience and notes for speakers
  • cover page development and design
  • PowerPoint presentation
  • presenters notes
  • practice sessions
Outline

Once general research has been conducted and main topic points have been identified, it is time to begin the outline. The outline should be an overview of the actual material to be presented and the order in which it is to be presented. Do not write long sentences. Use keywords only. Indicate where visuals are to be used.

Remember to state your purpose and expected outcomes at the beginning, several times throughout, and at the conclusion of your presentation. This information may be stated in a variety of ways but it is important to be sure the audience clearly understands why you are making the presentation and what action you want them to take. (i.e.: Purpose - to present your company; Outcome - to receive a bank loan.)

  • Introduction - Tell your audience what you are going to tell them.
  • Body - Tell your audience your key points restating purpose and outcome.
  • Summary - Tell your audience what you told them. Review presented material.
Visual Presentation

The purpose for using visuals is to enhance the presentation. According to experts 55% of communication is non-verbal. PowerPoint is the recommended presentation software program to use. You should be able to use your outline to develop PowerPoint slides. Other non-technological visuals might include story boards, flip-charts, posters, and/or other real objects (sample product). Whatever visual aid you choose to use, remember:

  • Keep it simple and uncluttered
  • Make it big.
  • Make it clear.
  • Be consistent.
  • Use keywords only - no sentences.
  • Limit key concepts - 1-3 per slide (maximum)

 

Don't show everything you are going to say on the slide. NEVER read from the slide. PowerPoint is intended to reinforce what you say, not duplicate it; you don't want your audience to stop listening to you. Once you loose their attention it might be difficult to get them back.

Practice, Practice, Practice

Once the presentation is fully developed and the presentation team has been identified, it is time to rehearse. This cannot be overemphasized. The many benefits of practicing include:

  • Practice allows the team to get thoroughly familiar with the material and memorize the key points.
  • Practice in front of peers will help identify areas of strength and weakness.
  • Practice will identify timings for slides and displaying other visuals.
  • Practice will identify unnecessary slides or missing slides.
  • Practice will help reduce nervousness during live presentation.
  • Practice will allow you to check the timing. Never go over the time allowed.
  • Practice in front of live audience will provide polish and professionalism.
  • Practice will make you more comfortable interacting with an audience.

 

Presentations that have not been rehearsed adequately are easy to identify and give the impression that the purpose and expected outcome is not very critical. Think of questions that could be asked and prepare answers to these questions. Spend significant time getting your part of the presentation perfect. However, the beginning is the most critical because the impression you make then will probably be the one the audience leaves with. Your presentation should be as professional as possible, therefore, you should be more than adequately prepared and have practiced.

Presentation Day

The following is a list of "Dos and Don'ts" for making good oral presentations:

DO...
  • prepare an audience analysis.
  • organize the presentation so it flows smoothly from section to section.
  • prepare and rehearse the presentation and then practice it some more.
  • prepare note cards but only use them sparingly as needed (i.e., direct quotation or precise financial data).
  • visit the room where the presentation will be given ahead of time, if at all possible.
  • inform the audience in the introduction your subject, who you are, and your qualifications to speak about the subject.
  • know your material. Do the research. Be prepared. Even if the information is not used in the presentation, it is useful to have as much knowledge as possible for any discussion during the question period.
  • state your main ideas at the beginning, in the middle, and at the end.
  • provide adequate support for your ideas. Use more than one source.
  • integrate relevant, supportive, and attractive visuals into your presentation.
  • use words that express your ideas clearly. (See "Power Words")
  • explain and/or define technical terms that the audience may not be familiar with.
  • speak clearly by using acceptable language, pronunciation, and enunciation. (No slang, "uhh" or "umm")
  • dress appropriately.
  • avoid distracting body movements.
  • maintain eye contact with the audience.
  • display enthusiasm and genuine concern for your subject.
  • use appropriate tone and inflection in your voice to emphasize key point.
  • use a pointer (stick or laser) only if you need to highlight a specific item on the screen.
  • allow time for a question/answer period.
  • focus on the questions and answer them credibly. If you don't know, say so.
  • start and stop your presentation on time.
DON'T...
  • leave research and preparation until the last minute.
  • make it up. Real data is the result of sound research.
  • hope it will come together with proper preparation and practice.
  • be late for the presentation and nor go overtime. The timeframe should be known in advance.
  • forget to breathe. Pause and take a deep breath before you begin or during your presentation. Don't hyperventilate; just relax and breathe normally.
  • speak in a monotone, mumble, or speak too fast.
  • slouch. Stand up straight.
  • forget your notes but don't read them. They are handy to have for reference but you must demonstrate personal knowledge of the material.
  • sit or lean on the desk or hide behind the podium.
  • stand in front of the screen or other visuals.
  • turn your back to the audience.
  • sway or rock in place. Moving around is ok but don't pace back and forth.
  • forget your audience nor avoid eye contact.
  • use technical terms unfamiliar to your audience unless you provide clear explanations and definitions.
  • hold the pointer when you're not using it (but don't forget where you placed it, either).
  • leave a slide up that is not relevant to the current topic.
  • leave the screen blank. Turn equipment off when you are finished.
  • forget that giving presentations is hard, but necessary if you are to be an effective communicator.
  • worry too much - it gets easier with experience.
Power Words

When making an oral presentation, vocabulary is essential. A good vocabulary indicates confidence, knowledge, and authority and will draw the audience in. The proper use of vocabulary will:

  • save time and allow you to make your point without excessive use of words. Using the "correct" word can often replace an entire string of words. Very often the string of words is simply the definition of the "correct" word. Always try to identify the "correct" word that will explain and describe succinctly.
  • inform the audience while inviting them to listen carefully. Even if the audience doesn't know for sure what a word means, they will realize they must stay tuned in and attentive.
  • make your point more accurately.
  • communicate concepts more clearly and rapidly.

Some define power words as: "choosing just the right words...those that have power, persuasion, and impact". Developing a broad vocabulary of power words will have a surprisingly significant impact on your career. The following quote is the result of a 20 year study.

"Without a single exception, in every case those who had scored highest on the vocabulary test given in college were in the top income group, while those who had scored the lowest were in the bottom income group."-- Earl Nightingale



Recommended Steps to Follow»

Keep these four concepts in mind as you prepare to make an oral presentation.

  1. Formulate a strategy for your specific audience.
  2. Develop a presentation structure that is flexible and flows from point to point.
  3. Remember, how you present is as important as what you present. Pay attention to your personal presentation style including appearance and behaviors. Remember that what you say and how you say it should enhance the presentation, not distract from it.
  4. Be thoroughly prepared for questions. Anticipate questions that are likely to be asked and prepare confident, informed responses.
Step 1: The Strategy

Before you begin putting a presentation together, answer the following questions to help pinpoint your focus and develop a clear overview of what you need to do. Then use it as the basis for building an outline of the "real" presentation.

  1. WHAT
    • What is the purpose of the presentation? (Inform, persuade, instruct, etc.) Everyone involved in the presentation, and that might be the entire company, should be very clear about the purpose.
    • What is it you want the audience to do? What action do you want the audience to take? (loan money, buy product, provide some service) What is it you want them to do? You must clearly identify the desired outcome in order to measure success or failure.
    • What are your main points? Be succinct. Identify key elements. You may have a lot of information, but there is only so much time, so use it wisely.
    • What information will the audience be interested in? Identify critical information that is essential to reaching the desired outcome from the audience. Don't overwhelm them with too much data.
    • What kind of supporting documentation should you provide? Will they take your word for it? Sometimes a visual is far better than words. i.e.: Organization Chart.
    • What tasks need to be delegated? Who will do what and who will check to see that they do it!
    • What information does the audience already have? What do they want to know? Don't waste time presenting material the audience already has. Try to determine the experience or knowledge base of the audience in general.
    • What are the benefits for the audience if they take your expected action? Is this a risky venture? Will they gain value, improve image, get reliable products...what?
    • What questions might be asked? If your audience is knowledgeable, they will ask more in-depth questions. If not, they will probably ask more general types of questions. Put together a list of questions for practice sessions and be prepared with answers.
    • What are you responsible for? What tasks have been delegated to you? Don't waste time saying or doing what someone else is supposed to do. (You may intentionally duplicate critical information.) Know exactly what is expected from you.
  2. WHO
    • Who will be in the audience? How many people will there be?
    • Who are you? Why have you been selected to present? What is your position in and responsibility to the company?
    • Who is responsible for each component of the presentation? Who will be doing the introductions? Who is responsible to set up the equipment? Who will be passing out materials?
    • Who are the backup speakers? Who will step up if someone is sick or unable to present?
    • Who else is there? Are others sharing presentation duties? Are there observers in the audience who will not be participating in the decision to take action?
  3. WHERE
    • Where will the presentation be given? Will it be at your office or somewhere else? Will you need to make arrangements to transport staff, materials, computers, etc.?
    • Where is the presentation room located? How big is it? Is it a conference room, small office, auditorium, etc? Will appropriate technological tools and/or connections be provided and are they compatible with your needs? What is the layout of the room? Will there be room to move around?
  4. WHEN
    • When will the presentation be made? What time of the day will you present? Will your audience be hungry, alert, or tired?
    • When will you begin and end? What time should you arrive? How long will it take to set up? What is the time limit for the presentation? Does that include questions? Who will be designated to keep track of time?
  5. WHY
    • Why should the audience listen to you? What will the audience benefit from listening to your presentation?
    • Why is the presentation important to the audience? Try to keep in mind their point of view.
    • Why does it matter what you wear? What is appropriate attire for you? What will the audience be wearing? Use whichever standard is higher. If your company has a dress code you must follow it. However, you should NEVER dress more casually than the audience.
Step 2: The Structure
  1. Outline

    Interesting presentations make it easy for the audience to follow. They are clearly structured with a definitive beginning, middle, and end. Prepare the structure (outline) carefully and logically.

    • Always keep the audience needs, prior knowledge, and attitude in mind.
    • Thoroughly research your topic.
    • Be specific, practical, relevant and absolute in your statements.
    • Organize main points to flow naturally and maintain audience attention using one or a blend of the following traditional formats.
      • Problem/Solution (recommend solution if more than one option)
      • Chronological (according to a timeline or time sequence)
      • Cause/Effect
      • Topical -- point to point
      • Rhetorical - questions and answers
      • Compare and Contrast - different activities or situations
      • Simple to Complex - building block sequence
      • Deductive Reasoning - move from general principles/values to specific applications/situations.
      • Inductive Reasoning - specific applications/situations used to draw conclusions about general principles/values.
      • Logical Progression - Step 1, Step 2, etc.
    • Include pros and cons (challenges or risks) to show thoroughness in planning.
    • Determine appropriate visual aids to enhance presentation. Don't use so many they become a distraction from the main purpose of the presentation.
      • Graphs / Charts
      • Maps / Photos / Drawings
      • Models / Objects / Samples
      • Technology / Video / Film
    • Identify handouts or other support documentation needed.
    • Plan for contingencies (backup cd, extension cords, etc.)
    • Identify different ways to encourage audience participation where appropriate.
This example outline indicates information/items to be considered and/or included in each section.
  1. INTRODUCTION - The Introduction (beginning) is critical because it sets the tone. This is when you draw the audience in, gain their attention, and establish rapport.
    • Introduce yourself (name, position, responsibilities within the company that indicate your qualifications). Your job is to convince the audience that you know what you are talking about. (Be sure you do!)
    • Introduce the other team members.
    • State purpose of the presentation.
    • Provide overview of material to be presented (outline or roadmap).
    • Indicate desired outcome and benefits (to the audience as well as the company).
    • Inform audience how and when you want to take questions (anytime during the presentation or only at the end).
    • Pass out handouts or other support documentation.
  2. BODY - The Body (middle) is where specific topics are addressed. All information should support your stated purpose. Don't get sidetracked...you don't have time! Determine effective formats to organize points.
    • Prioritize topics logically. Make it easy to follow and remember.
    • Allocate time appropriately.
    • Use clear examples to illustrate your points.
    • Use humor where appropriate. (Caution: Know your audience and don't overdo it!)
    • Follow a pattern (i.e.: problem/solution, cause and effect, timeline, or by topic).
    • Use effective transitions to move to the next point.
    • Restate the purpose and desired outcome where appropriate.
    • Use key phrases and power words (see list).
  3. CONCLUSION - The Conclusion (end) provides the opportunity to leave the audience with a clear summary of the presentation.
    • Summarize, review, and emphasize the main points.
    • Restate and highlight the benefits to both the company and the decision makers in the audience.
    • Draw conclusions - restate the purpose and recommend the action you want the audience to take.
    • Thank the audience and make it obvious the presentation is over. Don't just fade away.
    • Ask for Questions.
Step 3: The Presentation (Delivery)

Everyone has their own presentation style but some things are consistent in all good oral presentations. In order to ensure success, everyone involved in the presentation should apply the following principles:

  • Relax, breathe, and SMILE. This will make you appear confident even if you are scared to death.
  • Dress appropriately. What you wear has a direct impact on how you are perceived by the audience. You should never be dressed more casually than your audience. A professional presentation usually demands professional attire.
  • Talk to the audience. Don't talk to the wall, the computer, or the overhead screen. DO NOT read from a script or read from the overhead to the audience. Never turn your back on the audience. What you say should elaborate, explain, and enhance what is seen on the overhead.
  • Use appropriate vocabulary to deliver the message quickly and clearly. Pay attention to what you say and how you say it. Speak in a professional manner. Check pronunciation of unknown, foreign, or technical words. Use Power Words to enhance your vocabulary and clearly make your point.
  • Be prepared. Know your material. The best presentation is memorized but you may use note cards as a reference for technical data, actual financial data, or a direct quotation. Remember to number them in case they get mixed up.
  • Emphasize key points repetitively. Don't get bogged down with too much detail.
  • Speak up. An audience that has to struggle to hear you will rapidly be lost. Speak slowly and clearly. Don't mumble! Take your time. Don't chew gum.
  • Use time effectively. Give the audience time to absorb what you are saying and take notes between key points. Start on time and end on time!
  • Stand up straight. Do not wander around. If you move, do it on purpose. Don't fidget or rattle the coins or keys in your pocket!
  • Look at the audience. Try to identify those who are supportive and interested in what you are saying. If someone looks confused, stop and ask them why.
  • Be yourself. Use your normal hand movements, voice inflection, and body movements to enhance what you are saying. Do not stand like a stiff board and yet, don't dance all over. Just be you!
  • NEVER turn your back on the audience!
Visuals

The primary purpose of all visual aids is to enhance the presentation. PowerPoint is widely accepted as the presentation software of choice today. However, if technology is not available other visuals that you might consider would be story boards, flip-charts, posters, and/or printed outlines and handouts. In order to maximize the value of your visual be sure it is:

  • uncluttered and easy to read
  • large enough to be seen by everyone in the room
  • functional and compatible with existing equipment and connectivity
  • designed to increase audience interest in the topic
  • interesting and draws the audience in

There are many Internet sites that can give guidance for appearance and formatting of PowerPoint presentations. Some general rules to follow are:

  • Use san serif fonts for smaller text.
  • Use serif fonts only for larger headings and titles.
  • Use color to enhance text.
  • Be certain text can be read from the back of the room.
  • Try to determine if the audience can quickly and easily grasp what they see. You don't want them to be distracted from listening to you because they are reading.
  • Make only one key point per slide unless the audience is very familiar with the material being presented.
  • Organize points to flow in logical manner.
  • Include no more than 3-4 points under one heading.
  • Use keywords only. No sentences except for quotations.
  • When presenting financial data, don't use a full page of numbers. Create a table showing critical data in summary.
  • Translate numbers into graphs or charts to make your point quickly and clearly. Use not more than three curves on a line chart or graph.
  • Use drawings, diagrams, or models to present complex or successive processes and/or concepts.
  • Don't block the audience's vision; limit the time your back is to the audience.
  • Be sure you know how to operate the equipment; practice it ahead of time; have backup cords, bulbs, adapters, etc; prepare for the unexpected.
  • Make sure you know the electronic requirements for your equipment; know where the switches are and what settings are needed; bring a small penlight in case the room has to be darkened and you need to see notes or equipment.
Step 4: The Questions

Most presenters prefer that questions be asked at the end of the presentation. Whatever format you prefer, be sure to let the audience know. Consider the question/answer portion of the presentation as an opportunity to provide more detailed information in a specific area and really show what you know about your business. This is your chance to make friends with the audience and give them your final pitch. Remember, the presentation is not over just because the questions/answer period has begun. It is only over when the last question has been asked and answered. Remember to thank the audience for their attention and time.

  • Always allow time for questions. It is a good idea to keep a record of questions asked in order to refine the answers in case the question is asked at another presentation.
  • Try to anticipate what questions might be asked. Try to determine what the audience might be most interested in.
  • Repeat the question aloud in case others did not hear it.
  • Be honest. Ask for assistance from your team if you don't know the answer. Indicate you will research it and let them know what you find out. Then do exactly that.
  • Keep your focus. Don't get caught going off in the wrong direction. Always remember the purpose of the presentation. Respond in a way that will bring the session back on track.
  • Be prepared. If no one asks you a question, present a pre-prepared point of discussion or one of your anticipated questions and answers.
  • Keep track of time and use the last question to summarize, restate the purpose and desired outcome, and thank the audience for their attention and time.


Other Resources»

See the following web sites for further information regarding international trade:


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